• M. Chernadchuk Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
  • V. Bomko Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
Keywords: highly productive cows, by pass soybeans, soybean meal, raw protein, digested protein, undigested protein, average yield, the cost of food


The main component of a living organism is a protein because its vital functions closely related to metabolic processes; the main role is played by protein substances.  Today it is found that the productivity of highly productive Holstein cows depends not only on the amount of protein in the diet, but also on its type, i. e. the split and undigested micro-organisms in the rumen, and the higher the milk yield of cows, the greater their need in undigested protein. Soluble fraction of protein in the rumen is broken down in the small intestine to the amino acids of microbial protein which together with amino acids of microbe protein provide the body's need. Broken down in the rumen fractions of protein provides microflora with nitrogen and entering the bacterial protein to the intestines Therefore, standardization of protein supply in highly productive cows in Ukraine must also be carried out not only by the number of raw and digestible protein, and by the number of synthesized microbial protein and undigested protein in the rumen. Investigation dealing with content of undigested protein in the rumen in supplying organism with amino acids was conducted by many scientists over the years, but it was not determined bypass effect of soy on the productivity of highly productive cows of Holstein breed of different selection and it was not set the best standards of feeding by lactating cows. The objective of our research was to determine the effect of soy bypass on productivity of high-yielding cows during the first 100 days of lactation as a source of insoluble protein fractions on the background of the gradual replacement of dietary soybean meal to bypass soy. For the experiment, we selected highly productive cows of Ukrainian black- and-white dairy cattle after the first lactation, which were in the first half of the dry period and by the principle of analogues we formed four groups. In the preparatory period during the second phase (30 days) of dry period, experimental cows were fed with the same rations which contained 2.5 kg of soybean meal. In the research period, and in the first 100 days of lactation, the cows from the control group were fed with the diet which contained soybean meal. Feeding rations of experimental groups differed from the 1st control group that the 2nd experimental group 1 kg of soybean meal was replaced by 1 kg bypass soy, 3rd – 1.7 kg of soybean meal replaced the 1.7 kg of soya bypass, 4 th – 2.0 kg of soybean meal was replaced by 2.0 kg bypass soy. Tested cows during the experiment were fed from the set 5 kg alfalfa hay 4,1-4,8 kg with 25 kg of silage corn - 20,8-24,6 kg, 10 kg of alfalfa hay – 8,4–9,7 kg. Molasses, straw and fodder concentrate experimental cows consumed completely. Consumption of dry matter feed per 100 kg live weight of cows accounted for 4.18 kg in the 1st control group, 4.07 – in the 2nd experimental group, 4.32 kg – 3rd experimental group and 4 55 kg – 4th experimental group. More over tested cows responded better yields in advanced nursing. Consumed feed provided cows with raw protein on the level of 16,0–16,5% from dry matter, its soluble fraction on the level of 27.3% from raw protein in the 1st control group, 31.1% – in the 2nd experimental group, 35.2% – in the 3rd experimental group and 40.0% - in 4th experimental group. The content of raw fiber in experimental groups 15,4–16% of the dry matter at 16.1% in the control of consumed feed. This NIR and FTC in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively research groups was: 35.9; 35.7 and 36.1 and 21.5% – in the 2nd and 3rd groups and 21.9% – 4 experimental group and a 1-NIR control group – 35.6% and the FTC – 22.1%. Sugar-starch-protein ratio was normal and ranged 2,2–2,28 1 at a rate of 2.1: 1. Diets in trace elements were balanced by trace elements of organic origin, due to the introduction of the feed (TRT), and for vitamins - Vitamin Blend 0.02%. Among the main criteria that indicates the extent to which genetic potential is the level of milk production. Taking into account that the level of milk production depends on the usefulness and balanced animal feed, we calculated average yield which provides clean energy of lactation (CEL), which should reach kg / day: the 1st control group – 41.5; in the 2nd research – 40.2; in the 3rd – 43.2 and 4 – 46, and protein, respectively, 39.5; 39.7; 42.8 and 45.3 kg. This feed conversion to milk ought to make 1,63-1,7 in the research groups, and control - 1.6. The highest yields of natural milk, an average during 100 tested days had the cows from the experimental groups that dominated cows from analogue controls for average daily milk yield of natural milk, respectively, 1.2; 2.6 and 5.0 kg or 2.8; 6.2, and 11.8%. In the milk of research cows except for the 3rd research group it was noticed unambiguous increase in fat content 0,03-0,07%. Therefore preference on average daily 4% milk yield was also significant compared to the control group and was in the 2nd experimental group 1.4 kg or 3.5% in the experimental group and 3 - 2.3 kg or 5, 8% (P <0,001) and 4 experimental group – 5.5 kg (P <0,001) or 13.9%. The best results of milk productivity were obtained from the cows of the 4th experimental group that received rations of 2kg bypass soybeans. Thus, during the experiment, the lowest costs of feed for 1 kg of milk were observed in the cows from the 4th experimental group which were fed rations of 2kg bypass soy where the level of soluble protein was 40% of raw protein and these expenses were 6.5 MJ vs. 7, 4 mJ in the 1st control group. The best data of milk production of cows and lower feed costs per unit of production were obtained in experimental cows which received more soluble fraction of raw protein due to the use of bypass soy. The prospect of further research is to study the impact of bypass soya in diets for highly productive cows on reproductive function of cows.


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Author Biographies

M. Chernadchuk, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
V. Bomko, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
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Chernadchuk, M., & Bomko, V. (1). EFFICIENCY OF USE OF SOY BYPASS IN FEEDING HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE COWS. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 4(1), 284-289. Retrieved from https://bulletin-biosafety.com/index.php/journal/article/view/141