Features of appetitive behavior of highly productive cows at industrial technology
AbstractBehavioral studies are aimed to distinguish influencing external factors for animals, allowing to correct care and maintenance procedures and develop new technological decisions to promote efficiency of animal production. Even minor violations in feeding routing, ration and maintenance procedures can result in sharp increase of livestock morbidity rate. Emotional tension is developed, when animals can not satisfy their vital physiological needs. Animals must be monitored frequently for appetite as it is directly linked to the consumption of nutrients by cows, which defines productivity levels. The objective of the present study is the appetitive behavior of high-productive cows in conditions of factory milk production process in the freestall – box housing. Cows’ behavioral indicators were studied according to their classification under technological principle employing visual-chronological method in accordance with the methodology developed by A. Bondar. Biometric data processing was performed according to G. F. Lakin. Maximal share of animals, which simultaneously consumed forage in the first hour after delivery was 91 %. Active consumption of forage by animals was also observed after returning from the milking hall. As it was marked, in 20 minutes after forage mixture delivery the width of forage line on the table, in average, expands to 124 centimeters, and in 50 minutes – to 149 centimeters. The width of capture of forage for cows was 93.21 centimeters. In this regard, it is necessary to shovel forage periodically, not less than 5 times per day, towards the wall of the forage table. Forage leftovers amount, evaluated during the observations for the presents study, was estimated at rate of 3.93 % of total delivered forage mass. High forage consumption rate indicates that forage composition was balanced and nutritive. Wet content of forage, according to the laboratory testing results, was 50 %. During chronological observations period, daily milk yields were varying from 30.88 to 32.08 kg per cow. Average productivity of cows in the group was estimated at rate 31.46 ± 0,66 kg of milk per day with content of fat 3.78 %. Most of the time during day cows are busy with forage consumption and resting, 6.57 and 9.92 hours accordingly. Thus animals are in active motion (consuming forage, drinking water or being milked) 40.29 % of the time during day, and passive (resting, sleeping, comforting) 59.71 % of the time. It is necessary to shovel forage periodically, not less than 5 times per day, towards the wall of the forage table, as forage line expands on 32 – 59 % due to sorting out of forage by animals.
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