General aspects of pathogenesis and mechanisms of development of immunopathological changes at circovirus infection of pigs

  • V. V. Evert Dnіpropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
Keywords: Circovirus infection, syndrome of multi-system exhaustion, stages of the development of the disease, immunopathology, mechanisms of pathological changes

Abstract

To date, there has been a clear idea of the circovirus infection of pigs as a multi-symptomatic disease, which is based on complex processes of immunosuppression. Most known circoviruses cause severe illness in young of susceptible animals, and in adults the infection has a latent course. PCV-2 causes a different degree of depletion of lymphoid cells and changes the immunological status of animals. PCV-2 is also associated with a number of pathological conditions of pigs: syndrome after weaning multisystem exhaustion, dermatitis-nephropathy syndrome, proliferative-necrotizing pneumonia, congenital tremor and perinatal myocarditis with reproductive impairment. More often, circovirus infection is aggravated by concomitant infections, which causes a more severe course of the disease. In addition, the involvement of PCV-2 in the infectious process can change the clinical picture of the disease, which leads to difficulties at diagnosing. The purpose of the work is to elucidate the general aspects of pathogenesis and mechanisms of development of immunopathological changes at the circovirus infection of pigs. The pathogenesis of circovirus infection of pigs is a multifactorial and dynamic process, the defining aspect of which is the slow rate of the disease, due to the specific biological and pathogenic properties of the pathogen that determine the features of its penetration into target cells and subsequent reproduction. To date there is no exhaustive theory that explains and takes into account all aspects of pathogenesis. In infected animals, the virus is found in cells of the lymphoid system (macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes), which are considered target cells for PCV-2. The virus is mainly targeted at cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and macrophages of fetus, and monocytes in the early postpartum period, which eventually leads to depletion of lymphoid cells and immunosuppression. The disease is complicated by immunostimulation or joint infection with other pathogens. PCV-2 is able to be in macrophages and dendritic cells, modulating their functions. In infected PCV-2 pigs, the regulation of IL 10 and inflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the development of infection, is intensified. The development of immunopathological changes at circovirus infection covers all major structures and links of the hematopoiesis and immune defense system. The dynamics of the development of pathological processes in the organs of the immune system at pigs with circovirus infection depends on the stage of the infectious process and the hierarchical position of the organs in the system of hematopoiesis and immune defense. Features of immunopathological changes are determined by a combination of specific properties of the pathogen (moderate virulence, tropism to immune system cells, ability to persistent persistence in the antigen-presenting cells) with the development of a complex of immunopathological reactions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allan, G. M., McNeilly, F., Kennedy, S., Daft, B., Ellis, J. A., Haines, D. M., … Adair, B. M. (1998). Isolation of Porcine Circovirus-like Viruses from Pigs with a Wasting Disease in the USA and Europe. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 10(1), 3–10.

Allan, G. M., & Ellis, J. A. (2000). Porcine Circoviruses: A Review. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(1), 3–14.

Bassaganya-Riera, J., Pogranichniy, R. M., Jobgen, S. C., Halbur, P.G., Yoon, K. J., O'Shea, M., Mohede, I. & Hontecillas, R. (2003). Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates viral infectivity in a pig model of virally induced immunosuppression. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 3204–3214.

Clark, E. G. & Harding, J.C. (1997). Circovirus an emerging swine pathogen. ISU Swine Disease Conf. Proc., 63–64.

Darwich, L. (2003). Cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in response to mitogen, superantigen or recall viral antigens. Journal of General Virology, 84 (12), 3453–3457.

Darwich, L., Segales, J., Domingo, M., & Mateu, E. (2002). Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 9(2), 236–242.

Donnik, I. M., Petrova, O. G. & Isaeva, A.G. (2013). Patogenez bolezni i vzaimodejstvie CVS-2 na immunnuju sistemu organizma svinej [Pathogenesis of the disease and the impact of PCV2 on immune system of organism of pigs]. Agrarnyj Vestnik Urala, 4 (110), 11–13 (in Russian).

Gilpin, D. F., McCullough, K., Meehan, B. M., McNeilly, F., McNair, I., Stevenson, L. S., … Allan, G. M. (2003). In vitro studies on the infection and replication of porcine circovirus type 2 in cells of the porcine immune system. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 94(3-4), 149–161.

Herilovych, A. P. (2008). Vyvchennya filohenetychnykh osoblyvostey izolyativ tsyrkovirusu svyney, tsyrkulyuyuchykh v riznykh rehionakh svitu ta rozrakhunok praymeriv dlya dyferentsiatsiyi serotypiv zbudnyka. Vet. medytsyna: mizhvid. temat. nauk. zb. — Kh., 89, 89–96 (in Ukranian).

Kartashov, S.N., Ermakov, A.M. & Kljuchnikov, A.G. (2008). Immunogistohimicheskoe issledovanie limfouzlov pri cirkovirusnoj infekcii svinej. Veterinarnaja patologija, 4, 26–31 (in Russian).

Kim, J., & Chae, C. (2003). Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 But Not Interleukin-8 in Granulomatous Lesions in Lymph Nodes from Pigs with Naturally Occurring Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome. Veterinary Pathology, 40(2), 181–186.

Nielsen, J., Vincent, I. E., Bøtner, A., Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.-S., Allan, G., Summerfield, A., & McCullough, K. C. (2003). Association of lymphopenia with porcine circovirus type 2 induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 92(3-4), 97–111.

O'Connor, B., Gauvreau, H., West, K., Bogdan, J., Ayroud, M., Clark, E. G., Konoby, C., Allan, G. & Ellis, J. A. (2001). Multiple porcine circovirus 2–asoociated abortions and reproductive failure in a multisite swine production unit. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 42. 551–553.

Orljankin, B., Aliper, T. & Nepoklonov E. (2002). Sovremennye predstavlenija o cirkovirusah svinej. S.–h. biologija ser. Biologija zhivotnyh, 6, 29–37 (in Russian).

Sanchez, R. E., Meerts, P., Nauwynck, H. J., & Pensaert, M. B. (2003). Change of porcine circovirus 2 target cells in pigs during development from fetal to early postnatal life. Veterinary Microbiology, 95(1-2), 15–25.

Segalés, J., Alonso, F., Rosell, C., Pastor, J., Chianini, F., Campos, E., … Domingo, M. (2001). Changes in peripheral blood leukocyte populations in pigs with natural postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 81(1-2), 37–44.

Segales, J. (2004). Immunosuppression in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 98(2), 151–158.

Sipos, W., Duvigneau, J. ., Willheim, M., Schilcher, F., Hartl, R. ., Hofbauer, G., … Schmoll, F. (2004). Systemic cytokine profile in feeder pigs suffering from natural postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) as determined by semiquantitative RT–PCR and flow cytometric intracellular cytokine detection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 99(1-2), 63–71.

Timina, A.M. (2006). Razrabotka metodov laboratornoj diagnostiki cirkovirusnoj infekcii svinej. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Vladimir (in Russian).

Todd, D., Bendinelli, M. & Biagini, P. (2005). Circoviridae Ball virus taxonomy, eighth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego.

Vincent, I. E., Carrasco, C. P., Herrmann, B., Meehan, B. M., Allan, G. M., Summerfield, A., & McCullough, K. C. (2003). Dendritic Cells Harbor Infectious Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in the Absence of Apparent Cell Modulation or Replication of the Virus. Journal of Virology, 77(24), 13288–13300.

Young, S. Lyoo & Sun-young, Sunwoo. (2014). Vaktsynatsiya proty tsyrkovirusnoyi infektsiyi: otsinka efektyvnosti. Propozytsiya, 1,. 170–171 (in Ukranian).


Abstract views: 85
PDF Downloads: 45
How to Cite
Evert, V. (1). General aspects of pathogenesis and mechanisms of development of immunopathological changes at circovirus infection of pigs. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 5(3), 35-40. Retrieved from https://bulletin-biosafety.com/index.php/journal/article/view/155