Fish creeping species as test objects of bioindication of natural reservoirs for anthropogenic loading

  • N. M. Prysiazhniuk Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
  • N. E. Grynevych Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
  • Yu. V. Kunovskii Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
  • O. R. Myhalskiy Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
  • O. A. Khomiak Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva
Keywords: anthropogenic loading, reservoir, hydro ecosystem, ichthyofauna, aboriginal fish species, liver, biomarkers, toxicants, morphological parameters

Abstract

At the present day there is no sufficient amount of fundamental research that had been conducted on the effects of hydroecological system changes on the state of the ichthyofauna. At the same time it is necessary to project the impact of anthropogenic loading on the formation of the aquatic ecosystems a-biotic and biotic environment. Such studies are necessary for the ecological network monitoring at the regional and local levels. The constituent elements of the negative impact of polluting compounds on fish and hydroecosystem are consequent from the negative influence of pollutants on the ichthyofauna on the different levels of biological organization i.e. genetic, molecular, biochemical, physiological, morphological, behavioral reactions of fish, as biomarkers, based on those. At the present time, for bio monitoring studies, salmon, blueberries and harrier fishes are considered as representative species for evaluation of the quality of the aquatic environment according to specific indicators. Fishes that have high toxicological sensivity, accumulate toxins in their bodies faster because of higher intensity of metabolic processes for those organisms. For each of these groups number of advantages and disadvantages could be named, which determine the possibilities and limitations for the performance of certain tasks. Five individuals of same age from aboriginal fish species were used in this study, in particular: ordinary pike (Esox lucius L.), common catfish (Siluris glanis L.), perch flies (Perca fluviatilis). The representatives of carnivorous ichthyofauna of the Ros river were used from the catchment within the upper (Glybichka village) and the lower (village of Shkarivka) of Bila Tserkva reservoirs. In order to investigate the features of morphological changes in the liver, histological structure, morphometric indicators of the organ and cells were studied. Studies indicated that in the liver of fish caught within the lower reservoir vascular and parenchyma dystrophic and destructive changes were developing. The weight of the liver of ordinary pike, common catfish and perch is on 18.6%, 19.8% and 18.1% greater respectively, in comparison to the organ weight for fish caught within the upper Ros River reservoir. In fish caught from the downstream reservoir, thickening of the liver capsule due to overgrowth of the connective tissue was observed. The vessels of the liver were filled with blood, the obliteration of particular blood vessels was observed. In the central parts of hepatic lobules sinusoids and vascular spaces were enlarged. An increase in the number of nuclei and a nuclear-cytoplasm ratio in the hepatocyte nuclei in the fish from downstream reservoir of the Ros river indicated the activation of the latent nucleus-forming regions of the chromosomes, i.e., transition to more active functional state – the increase of protein's activity in the cells. The increase in protein synthesis leads to the accumulation of plastic material, increase in activity of enzymes, etc. Such intensification of metabolic processes promotes the increase of cell resistance and optimal development of cellular and intracellular regeneration mechanisms. According to the obtained morphometric data, it should be noted that the insignificant influence of toxic substances intensifies the processes of physiological regeneration in fish organism along with the increase of functional activity of hepatocytes. The increase in the number of nucleoli in the nuclei of hepatocytes and the number of dual-core hepatocytes, as well as nuclear-cytoplasm ratio.

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How to Cite
Prysiazhniuk, N., Grynevych, N., Kunovskii, Y., Myhalskiy, O., & Khomiak, O. (1). Fish creeping species as test objects of bioindication of natural reservoirs for anthropogenic loading. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 5(4), 31-36. Retrieved from https://bulletin-biosafety.com/index.php/journal/article/view/160