Сontamination of maize, wheat and barley by mycotoxins (according to 2017 data)

  • K. V. Bilash Dnіpro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • V. G. Yefimov Dnіpro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • L. V. Yakunina Dnіpro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
Keywords: mycotoxins, grain, food products, feed, maximum allowable level

Abstract

Aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), fumonisins, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and ochratoxin A belong to the mycotoxins that are most dangerous for humans and animals. For that matter, continuous monitoring of the presence of mycotoxins in crops which are used both for food production and for animals feeding remains relevant. The objective of our study was to analyze the level of contamination of samples of wheat, barley and corn with individual mycotoxins (according to 2017 data). Samples of wheat, barley and maize were selected in which the content of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, ochratoxin A, DON and the amount of fumonisins by ELISA method using Tecna Celer test systems produced by TecnaLab (Italy) was determined. The optical density of the solutions was measured on a Microplate reader Immunochem 2000 at a wavelength of 450 nm. Evaluation of compliance of individual mycotoxins content to established standards was carried out according to the requirements on the basis of orders of the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine No. 131 of 19.03.2012 (for feed) and Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 368 of May 13, 2013. The contents of T-2 toxins in food and feed corn grain (9.3%) and wheat grain (10.4%) were higher than the established requirements. 27.9% of the maize samples and 13.3% of the wheat samples did not meet the requirements of food production for the content of aflatoxin B1. The concentration of zearalenone in maize and wheat samples (11.6% and 9.3%, respectively) was higher than the level allowed for feed. The largest number of ochratoxin A samples did not meet food production requirements for wheat (16.0%) and maize (14.7%). Only 1.3% of wheat samples and 2.3% of corn samples for animals feeding exceeded the maximum allowable level. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the most widespread mycotoxin, due to which the largest number of specimens of the examined grain did not meet the standards, primarily for feed: 49.6% corn, 16.0% barley and 13.3% wheat. In our studies, only two samples of corn (1.5%) did not meet the requirements for the level of fumonisins. Thus, in samples of corn, barley and wheat, the allowable level for food and feed grain for individual mycotoxins was quite high and exceeded 49%. The most contaminated mycotoxins were corn grains, and the main contaminant factor was DON, due to the peculiarities of air humidity, temperature regime and crop harvesting time frame.

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Abstract views: 338
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Published
2018-06-26
How to Cite
Bilash, K., Yefimov, V., & Yakunina, L. (2018). Сontamination of maize, wheat and barley by mycotoxins (according to 2017 data). Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 6(2), 25-29. Retrieved from https://bulletin-biosafety.com/index.php/journal/article/view/176