Phenotypic characteristics and antigenic properties of the reference stamp M. Avium IECVM-UAAS at the long-term passage
AbstractMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) are naturally common pathogens of mammalian mycobacteriosis and bird tuberculosis. The most epidemic is the M. avium species, which can cause sporadic mycobacteriosis in humans, especially those of risk group, and can sustain the epizootic process in pigs. MAC and the large group of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria pose sanitary risk to humans and epizootic danger to mammals and birds. The purpose of the study was to analyze the principal species characteristics of the reference strain M. avium IECVM-UAAS, which is used for the production of PPD-tuberculin for poultry. The strain is obtained by routine methods from a consumptive chicken in the terminal stage of the disease, hence the pathogenic potencies are well-defined. The chicken had pathological changes and a typically occurring clinical picture of tuberculosis. The epizootic strain cloned according to proteinogenic indices was maintained for a long time by the culture method with very rare bioassays, which induced a slow process of culture saprophytization. In the study we analyzed morphotinic, cultural, biochemical, antigenic and pathogenic properties of the reference proteinogenic strain by applying conventional methods, after more than 17 years of culture passaging on an elective nutritional medium. It was established that according to the morphological, cultural and biochemical properties, the reference strain M. avium IEСVM-UAAS in the nominal morphogenesis state did not change significantly in comparison with the initial characteristics of the wild ancestor, with long-term passaging on the elective nutrient medium of Levenshtein-Jensen, and according to the phenotypic indices corresponds to the characteristics inherent in the M. avium species. Proteinogenic culture of M. avium IECVM-UAAS exhibited antigenic properties for laboratory animals, it is an active inducer of cell mediated skin reactions to homologous PPD-tuberculin and caused the synthesis of high-titre immunoglobulins. When white mice, guinea pigs, chickens and rabbits were infected, the culture of M. avium IEKVM-UAAS caused a short non-lethal mycobacterial process in the experimental animals and the chronic course of tuberculosis in chickens. Culture M. avium IECVM-UAAS in experimental animals caused bacteremia, the synthesis of immunoglobulins and immunological restructuring of the macroorganism. The symptom-complex of non-lethal pathogenesis had no pathognomonic features, which indicates a decrease in the pathogenic potencies of the reference strain.
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