Features of humoral immunity formation under oral and parenteral immunoprophylaxis of porcine epidemic diarrhea

  • D. M. Masiuk Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • A. V. Kokariev Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • O. I. Sosnytsky Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • T. O. Vasilenko Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
  • Y. V. Hustova Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro
Keywords: immunization, IgG, PED, sows, neonatal piglets


The research was carried out on the basis of the Scientific Research Center of Biosafety and Environmental Control AIC of the Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University. The experimental and control groups of second and third farrow sows with 10 heads in each group were formed. Sows of the control group were immunized 21 days before farrowing by individual oral feeding of a virus-containing homogenate tissue of 50 g per animal, which was produced from intestines of suckling piglets who died with clinical manifestations of diarrhea syndrome. Sows of the experimental group were immunized with parenteral injection of an autogenous live vaccine against porcine epidemic diarrhea twice, at 90 and 100 days of fertility at a dose of 2 cm3. Injections were performed intramuscularly in the area behind the ear. Blood samples were taken on 1, 7 and 14 days after farrowing and on 1, 7 and 14 days of life in pigs for the specific IgG analysis. It has been established that parenteral immunization of sows against porcine epidemic diarrhea provides induction of specific IgG and reduces the risk of newborn piglets’ infection in the first days of life. The obtained results show that oral immunization of sows against EDF contributes to seroconversion in 40% of animals of specific IgG in the titre of 1: 200, and for double parenteral immunization, specific IgGs are registered in the diagnostic titer in 70% of sows. Also, an increase in the antibody level in sows of the experimental group was detected by almost 40% in the first 14 days after farrowing against the background of an increase in homogeneity of the S/P index by 14.4% relative to the values in sows after oral immunization. It has been shown that parenteral vaccination of sows contributes to the formation of a specific colostral IgG immunity in 100% of piglets, which is preserved during the first 14 days of life in more than 60% of the animals. Oral immunization of farrowing sows provides the formation of specific IgG immune protection in 60% of animals, which is preserved during the first 14 days of life in only 20% of pigs.


Download data is not yet available.


Annamalai, T., Saif, L. J., Lu, Z., & Jung, K. (2015). Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 168(3–4), 193–202.

Bjustrom-Kraft, J., Woodard, K., Giménez-Lirola, L., Rotolo, M., Wang, C., Sun, Y., Lasley, P., Zhang, J., Baum, D., Gauger, P., Main, R., & Zimmerman, J. (2016). Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) detection and antibody response in commercial growing pigs. BMC Veterinary Research, 12(1).

Chattha, K. S., Roth, J. A., & Saif, L. J. (2015). Strategies for Design and Application of Enteric Viral Vaccines. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, 3(1), 375–395.

Clement, T., Singrey, A., Lawson, S., Okda, F., Nelson, J., Diego, D., Nelson, E., & Christopher Hennings, J. (2016). Measurement of neutralizaing antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in sow serum, colostrum, and milk samples and piglet serum samples after feedback. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 24, 1–10.

Dastjerdi, A., Carr, J., Ellis, R. J., Steinbach, F., & Williamson, S. (2015). Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus among farmed pigs, Ukraine. Emerging infectious diseases, 21(12), 2235–2237.

Gerber, P. F., & Opriessnig, T. (2015). Detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in fecal and serum samples. MethodsX, 2, 368–373.

Gimenez-Lirola, L., Kraft, J. B., Woodard, J. B., Wang, C., Baum, D., Zimmerman, J., & Main, R. (2016). PEDV antibody responses in fecal and oral fluid specimens. American Association of Swine Veterinarians. New Orleans, 64.

Hanke, D., Pohlmann, A., Sauter-Louis, C., Höper, D., Stadler, J., Ritzmann, M., Steinrigl, A., Schwarz, B. A., Akimkin, V., Fux, R., Blome, S., & Beer, M. (2017). Porcine epidemic diarrhea in Europe: in-detail analyses of disease dynamics and molecular epidemiology. Viruses, 9(7), 177.

Jang, J., Yoon, S. H., Lee, W., Yu, J., Yoon, J., Shim, S., & Kim, H. (2018). Time-calibrated phylogenomics of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: genome-wide insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics. Genes & Genomics, 40(8), 825–834.

Jung, K., Annamalai, T., Lu, Z., & Saif, L. J. (2015). Comparative pathogenesis of US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC21A in conventional 9-day-old nursing piglets vs. 26-day-old weaned pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 178(1–2), 31–40.

Kokarev, A., & Masiuk, D. (2014). The dynamics of factors nonspecific immune protection in colostrum of sows at action of drug "Imunolak". Science and Technology Bulletin of Scientific research center for biosafety and environmental control of agro-industrial complex, 2(1), 75–80 (in Ukrainian).

Kravtsiv, R. Y., & Maslianko, R. P. (2008). Suchasnyi stan rozvytku imunoprofilaktyky infektsiinykh zakhvoriuvan tvaryn. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 10(2), 148–155 (in Ukrainian).

Lin, C.-M., Annamalai, T., Liu, X., Gao, X., Lu, Z., El-Tholoth, M., Hu, H., Saif, L. J., & Wang, Q. (2015). Experimental infection of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in conventional nursing piglets and cross-protection to the original US PEDV infection. Veterinary Research, 46(1).

Lin, C.-M., Saif, L. J., Marthaler, D., & Wang, Q. (2016). Evolution, antigenicity and pathogenicity of global porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains. Virus Research, 226, 20–39.

Masiuk, D. M., Sosnitsky, O. I., Nedzvetsky, V. S., Kokarev, A. V., & Koliada, S. G. (2017a). Epidemiology, etiology and gene analysis of spike S protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in Ukraine during 2016–2017. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(4), 602–610.

Masiuk, D. M., Sosnitsky, O. I., Nedzvetsky, V. S., Kokarev, A. V., & Koliada, S. G. (2017b). Endemic course of epidemic diarrhea of pigs in the stabilized focus of infection. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 410–416.

Masiuk, D. N., Nedzvetsky, V. S., Sosnitskiy, A. I., Kokarev, A. V., & Koliada, S. G. (2018). The characteristics, emergent properties and manner of spread in Ukraine of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 9(3).

Ogawa, S., Tsukahara, T., Imaoka, T., Nakanishi, N., Ushida, K., & Inoue, R. (2016). The effect of colostrum ingestion during the first 24 hours of life on early postnatal development of piglet immune systems. Animal Science Journal, 87(12), 1511–1515.

Olanratmanee, E. O., Kunavongkrit, A., & Tummaruk, P. (2010). Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection at different periods of pregnancy on subsequent reproductive performance in gilts and sows. Animal Reproduction Science, 122, 42–51.

Onoprienko, L. V. (2011). Molecular mechanisns regulating the activity of macrophages. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 37(4), 437–451 (in Russian).

Ouyang, K., Shyu, D. L., Dhakal, S., Hiremath, J., Binjawadagi, B., Lakshmanappa, Y. S., Guo, R., Ransburgh, R., Bondra, K. M., Gauger, P., Zhang, J., Specht, T., Gilbertie, A., Minton, W., Fang, Y., & Renukaradhya, G. J. (2015). Evaluation of humoral immune status in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infected sows under field conditions. Veterinary Research, 46, 140.

Poonsuk, K., Giménez-Lirola, L. G., Zhang, J., Arruda, P., Chen, Q., Correa da Silva Carrion, L., Magtoto, R., Pineyro, P., Sarmento, L., Wang, C., Sun, Y., Madson, D., Johnson, J., Yoon, K.J., Zimmerman, J., & Main, R. (2016). Does circulating antibody play a role in the protection of piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus? PLOS ONE, 11(4), e0153041.

Scherba, G., Bromfield, C. R., Jarrell, V. L., & Shipley, C. F. (2016). Evaluation of responses to both oral and parenteral immunization modalities for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in production units. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 24(1), 21–28.

Setcavage, T. M., & Kim, T. B. (1976). Characteristics of porcine serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM end IgA and the preparation of monospecific anti-chain sera. Immunochem, 13, 643–652.

Shoup, D. I., Jackwood, D. J., & Saif, L. J. (1997). Active and passive immune responses to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine inoculated with recombinant baculovirus-expressed TGEV spike glycoprotein vaccines. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 58, 242–250.

Abstract views: 185
PDF Downloads: 135
How to Cite
Masiuk, D., Kokariev, A., Sosnytsky, O., Vasilenko, T., & Hustova, Y. (2018). Features of humoral immunity formation under oral and parenteral immunoprophylaxis of porcine epidemic diarrhea. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 6(3), 18-22. https://doi.org/10.32819/2018.63004