Content of some essential mineral substances and heavy metals in wheat groats
AbstractThe products of wheat processing remain for many peoples as one of the main sources of nutrients, essential minerals and heavy metals. Groats are the second largest product of wheat (after flour), and therefore it is expedient to determine the content of certain minerals in it. The purpose of the work was to determine the content of certain minerals in wheat groats and the level of heavy metals in it. To do this, samples of wheat groats of various types and brands were selected in the trading network: “Artek. Svoya liniya”, “Poltavska № 3. Zernari” and “Artek. Rozumnyj vybir”, in which determined the content of crude ash after dry mineralization, as well as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, manganese, cobalt, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium by atomic absorption and colorimetric methods. The determination of each indicator was performed in three parallel replications, and the difference between the obtained mean values was determined in accordance with the Duncan multiple test using the IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 program. It was found that wheat groats “Artek” of different brands had no differences in the content of ash (1.27–1.32%), whereas in the groats “Poltavska № 3” was significantly lower the level of crude ash and phosphorus. It was determined that wheat groats of different brands and types did not differ according to the concentration of calcium (0.38–0.39 g/kg), magnesium (0.63–0.66 g/kg), iron (32.5–33.4 mg/kg) and manganese (17.4–20.5 mg/kg). The lowest content among investigated essential elements in wheat groats was found for cobalt, which varied in the range of 0.07–0.10 mg/kg. In the groats “Artek” concentration of copper and zinc did not differ significantly and was 3.96–4.48 mg/kg and 31.1–33.0 mg/kg, respectively. The lowest content of copper was in the groats “Poltavska № 3” – 2.58 mg/kg, as well as zinc – 16.2 mg/kg. In determining the level of heavy metals (lead – lower 0.19 mg/kg and cadmium lower 0.07 mg/kg) in the groats it is clarified that it does not exceed the level established by the national normative documents.
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