Lymphatic supply and architectonics of intranodal lymphatic channel of lymph nodes of domestic pig
AbstractThe peculiarities of lymphatic supply of individual somatic lymph nodes and the architectonics of their intranodal lymphatic channel in the domestic pig are analyzed. The method of indirect interstitial injection of lymphatic vessels with a fine-disperse contrast mass (black mascara suspension in 5 % gelatin gel solution) was used. The dynamics of gradual distribution of contrast mass from the interstice to the afferent lymphatic vessels and lymphatic collectors of the lymph nodes, as well as in the sinuses of the parenchyma of the organs until the appearance of the mass in the efferent lymphatic vessels were investigated by the method of anatomical preparation. Each subunit of the somatic lymph node conglomerate receives lymph from one afferent lymphatic vessel. The afferent lymphatic vessels flow into the intra-trabecular lymphatic cisterns, which are the major intranodal lymph node collectors. The number of intra-trabecular lymphatic cisterns in lymph nodes of domestic pigs corresponds to the number of subunits that form the corresponding nodule conglomerates. Intra-tubular cisterns are connected with all the sinuses of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes through the numerous lymphatic channels. The intensity of lymph flow from the cavity of the lymphatic cistern to the sinuses of the parenchyma nodes is greater in the direction from the top of the trabecula (cistern) to the central (middle) area of the lymphoid tissue. Contrast mass sequentially fills afferent lymphatic vessels, intra-trabecular lymphatic cisterns, central sites of parenchyma of nodes, peripheral sites of the parenchyma of nodes, including marginal and portal sinuses, efferent lymphatic vessels. The efferent lymphatic vessels are localized at the hilus of the subunits of the nodes together with the neurovascular bundles. The afferent vessels are located separately at the opposite pole of the subunits. In general, lymph nodes of the domestic pig are characterized by the usual, rather than the «reverse» type of intranodal lymphodynamics. As peculiarities of the structure of the intranodal lymphatic channel are: localization of the intranodal lymphatic collector in the middle of the highly developed capsular trabeculae, reminiscent of the structure of additional hilus of the nodes, but does not contain neurovascular fascicles; preferably a «centrifugal» type of distribution of the lymph in the sinus parenchyma of the lymph nodes from apex of the cistern, and, accordingly, from the deep layers of the lymphoid parenchyma to the marginal and portal sinuses. The established type of lymphatic supply of the lymph nodes of domestic pig probably provides a more effective immune response in consequence of the rapid and simultaneous entry of antigens into different, both superficial and deep layers of the lymphoid tissue of the organs.
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