Rumen Protozoa of adult bovine during autumn in the east of Algeria

Keywords: Algeria; bovine; climate; gender; Protozoa; rumen.


The two main pregastric compartiments of ruminants: rumen and reticulum work as anaerobic fermenter which allows them to use energetic and nitrogen substrates which are indigestible by monograstric animals. They have a major importance in this fermenter, also these microbes : bacteria, protozoa and fungi, on the degradation of cell-wall carbohydrates: cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, on nitrogen digestion and finally on the utilisation of the major minerals and trace elements. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the protozoa populations in the rumen of Algerian bovines local breed, adult animals living in a relatively humid climate, basic ration based on straw and pastures during hot days. Whereas in cold weather rations are based on straw, cereals and grass forage. Usually not 2 to 5 × 106 ml of rumen containing organisms however, under certain feeding conditions, they represent at least 50 % of the rumen microbial biomass. Due to the difficulties in cultivate in vitro, their role and their metabolism are less known than those of bacteria. Ciliated protozoa are capable of transforming a large number of food and bacterial constituents in metabolites and cellular compounds which will then be used by the host animal. The importance of these activities is however still very controversial since in the absence of protozoa in the rumen, Isolation carried out on rumen fluid sampled of 20 cows. Rumen fluid was diluted in formaldehyde 10 % solution, and distributed in Sedgewick Rafter chamber. Then observed in optical microscope using Lugol’s iodine coloration. Classified in three genders according to size. 11 different genders were identified; a considerable population of rumen protozoa was identified and classified for first time on Algerian local breed (Atlas).


Download data is not yet available.


Abe, M., Iriki, T., Tobe, N., & Shibui, H. (1981). Sequestration of holotrich Protozoa in the reticulo-rumen of cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 41(3), 758–765.

Abrão, F. O., Duarte, E. R., Freitas, C. E. S., Vieira, E. A., Geraseev, L. C., da Silva-Hughes, A. F., Rosa, C. A., & Rodrigues, N. M. (2014). Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures. Current Microbiology, 69(5), 649–659.

Abrar, A., Watanabe, H., Kitamura, T., Kondo, M., BanTokuda, T., & Matsui, H. (2016). Diversity and fluctuation in ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle. Animal Science Journal, 87(9), 1188–1192.

Agarwal, N., Kamra, D. N., & Chaudhary, L. C. (2015). Rumen microbial ecosystem of domesticated ruminants. Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution, 17–30.

Bauchop, T., & Clarke, R. T. (1976). Attachment of the ciliate Epidinium Crawley to plant fragments in the sheep rumen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 32(3), 417–422.

Béra-Maillet, C., Devillard, E., Cezette, M., Jouany, J.-P., & Forano, E. (2005). Xylanases and carboxymethyl cellulases of the rumen protozoa Polyplastron multivesiculatum, Eudiplodinium maggii and Entodinium sp. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 244(1), 149–156.

Bouzebda, A. F. (2007). Performances zootechniques et structure d’élevage dans la population bovine de type local (Est Algerien).

Burk, A. D. (2018). Classification of rumen ciliate Protozoa. Laboratory manual for classification and morphology of rumen ciliate Protozoa, 1–2.

Coleman, G. S. (1967). The metabolism of free amino acids by washed suspensions of the rumen ciliate Entodinium caudatum. Journal of General Microbiology, 47(3), 433–447.

D’Agosto, M., & Carneiro, M. E. (1999). Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 16(3), 725–729.

Dehority, B. A. (2017). Laboratory manual for classification and morphology of rumen Ciliate Protozoa. CRC Press.

Eadie, J. M. (1962). Inter-relationships between certain rumen ciliate Protozoa. Journal of General Microbiology, 29(4), 579–588.

Findley, S. D., Mormile, M. R., Sommer-Hurley, A., Zhang, X.-C., Tipton, P., Arnett, K., Porter, J. H., Kerley, M., & Stacey, G. (2011). Activity-based metagenomic screening and biochemical characterization of bovine ruminal Protozoan glycoside hydrolases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(22), 8106–8113.

Finlay, B. J., Esteban, G., Clarke, K. J., Williams, A. G., Embley, T. M., & Hirt, R. P. (1994). Some rumen ciliates have endosymbiotic methanogens. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 117(2), 157–161.

Fonty, G., Gouet, P., Jouany, J. P., & Sénaud, J. (1986). Rôle de la microflore sur la cinétique d’apparition des protozoaires ciliés dans le rumen de l’agneau. Reproduction Nutrition Développement, 26(1B), 285–286.

Franzolin, R., & Franzolin, M. H. T. (2000). População protozoários ciliados e degradabilidade ruminal em búfalos e bovinos zebuínos sob dieta à base de cana-de-açúcar. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 1853–1861.

Grain, C. F. (1967). Phase relations in the ZrO2-MgO system. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 50(6), 288–290.

Guyader, J., Eugène, M., Nozière, P., Morgavi, D. P., Doreau, M., & Martin, C. (2014). Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach. Animal, 8(11), 1816–1825.

Hungate, R. E. (1966). The rumen Protozoa. The rumen and its microbes, 91–147. Academic Press, NY.

Martinele, I., & D’Agosto, M. (2008). Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae) no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 25(3), 451–455.

Nigri, A. C. A., Ribeiro, I. C. O., Vieira, E. A., Silva, M. L. F., Virgínio-Júnior, G. ., Abrão, F. O., Geraseev, L.C., & Duarte, E. R. (2017). População de protozoários ruminais em novilhos zebuínos alimentados com ou sem volumoso. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 69(5), 1339–1345.

Orpin, C. G., Knight, M., & Evans, W. C. (1971). The bacterial oxidation ofN-methylisonicotinate. Biochemical Journal, 122(5), 58.

Rufino, L. M. A., Barreto, S. M. P., Duarte, E. R., Geraseev, L. C., Santos, A. C. R., & Jaruche, Y. G. (2011). Efeitos da inclusão de torta de macaúba sobre a população de protozoários ruminais de caprinos. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(4), 899–903.

Russell, J. B., & Rychlik, J. L. (2001). Factors that alter rumen microbial ecology. Science, 292(5519), 1119–1122.

Santra, A., & Karim, S. A. (2002). Influence of ciliate protozoa on biochemical changes and hydrolytic enzyme profile in the rumen ecosystem. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 92(5), 801–811.

Silva, K. L. da, Duarte, E. R., Freitas, C. E. S., Abrão, F. O., & Geraseev, L. C. (2014). Protozoários ruminais de novilhos de corte criados em pastagem tropical durante o período seco. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 15(3), 259–265.

Suárez, B. J., Van Reenen, C. G., Stockhofe, N., Dijkstra, J., & Gerrits, W. J. J. (2007). Effect of roughage source and roughage to concentrate ratio on animal performance and rumen development in veal calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(5), 2390–2403.

Ushida, K., Kayouli, C., De Smet, S., & Jouany, J. P. (1990). Effect of defaunation on protein and fibre digestion in sheep fed on ammonia-treated straw-based diets with or without maize. British Journal of Nutrition, 64(3), 765–775.

Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3).

Williams, A. G., & Coleman, G. S. (1997). The rumen protozoa. The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem, 73–139.

Abstract views: 400
PDF Downloads: 149
How to Cite
Fares, M. A., Rahmoun, D. E., & Lieshchova, M. A. (2019). Rumen Protozoa of adult bovine during autumn in the east of Algeria. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 7(4), 223-228.

Most read articles by the same author(s)