Formation of immune structures in small intestine of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata)

Keywords: diffuse lymphoid tissue; aggregated lymphoid nodules; duodenum; jejunum and ileum.


Of particular importance in our time is the detailed study of morphology, physiology and biochemistry, the digestive system of new poultry crosses, which is the biological basis for the development of complete feeding and improving the productive qualities of the bird. The morphological aspects of the formation of the lymphoid structures in the bird’s digestive tract, including Muscovy ducks, have not yet been elucidated.  Selected duodenum, jejunum, ileum were filled with subsequent paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin.  The study material was selected from non-vaccinated, Muscovy ducks of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, 150-, 180-, 210- and 240 days old.  In the newborn bird, the immune structures are characterized by a low degree of differentiation and are represented by single lymphocytes. Subsequently, lymphoid nodules appear on the background of diffuse lymphoid tissue from the 30-days-old (in the jejunum intestine) to 60-days-old (in the ileum).  In the period from 90- to 120-days-old, lymphoid nodules with centers of reproduction are formed in the mucous membrane of the small intestine. From the age of 120 days-old to the onset of puberty (240 days) in the mucous membrane of all parts of the small intestine, the formation of lymphoid nodules is completed, with centers as well as without germinal center.  It has been established that the localization of lymphoid structures of the mucous membrane of the Muscovy ducks’ small intestine has certain regional features: duodenal lymphoid structures are represented solely by single lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue is diffuse and lymphoid nodules are on different differentiation stages, and localized in the mucous and submucous membrane of the small intestine. It was found that lymphoid structures of the jejunum and ileum are represented by Peyer’s patches, which are formed by diffuse lymphoid tissue, single and aggregated lymphoid nodules, and by the general regularity of the lymphoid nodules localization in the mucosal and muscular layer of the organs.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Saffar, F. J., & Al-Samawy, E. R. M. (2016). Histomorphological and histochemical study of the small Intestine of the striated Scope Owls (Otus Scors Brucei). Singapore Journal of Chemical Biology, 5(1), 1–10.

Al-Shamary, E. R. M., Jarad, A. S., Taher, I. A., Al-Saffar, F. J., & Naji, W. A. (2017). Some histo-morphometric and histochemical comparsion aspect of the duodenum in Collard Dove (Frivaldszky), Ruddy Shelduck (Pallas) and Owl (Otus Scors brucei) in south Iraq. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(6), 923–928.

Barsukova, V. V., & Prokushenkova, O. G. (2015). Features of forming aggregated lymphoid nodules in the period of early postnatal ontogenesis of muscovy ducks. Science and Technology Bulletin of SRC for Biosafety and Environmental Control of AIC, 3(2), 7–11 (in Ukrainian).

Barreau, F., Meinzer, U., Chareyre, F., Berrebi, D., Niwa-Kawakita, M., Dussaillant, M., Foligne, B., Ollendorff, V., Heyman, M., Bonacorsi, S., Lesuffleur, T., Sterkers, G., Giovannini, M., & Hugot, J.-P. (2007). CARD15/NOD2 is required for Peyer’s patches homeostasis in mice. PloS one, 2(6), e523.

Bruder, M. C., Spanhaak, S., Bruijntjes, J. P., Michielsen, C. P. P. C., Vos, J. G., & Kuper, C. F. (1999). Intestinal T lymphocytes of different rat strains in immunotoxicity. Toxicologic Pathology, 27(2), 171–179.

Buettner, M., & Lochner, M. (2016). Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small Intestine and the colon. Frontiers in Immunology, 7.

Burns, R. B. (1982). Histology and immunology of Peyer’s patches in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Research in Veterinary Science, 32(3), 359–367.

Burns, R. B. & Maxwell, M. H. (1986). Ultrastructure of Peyer’s patches in the domestic fowl and turkey. Journal of Anatomy, 147, 235–243.

Casteleyn, C., Doom, M., Lambrechts, E., Van den Broeck, W., Simoens, P., & Cornillie, P. (2010). Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review. Avian Pathology, 39(3), 143–150.

Cesta, M. F. (2006). Normal structure, function, and histology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Toxicologic Pathology, 34(5), 599–608.

Gavrilin, P. M., & Nikitina, M. O. (2019). Microanatomical aspects of the intestines and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of meat rabbits. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 7(1), 42–46.

Gebert, A., & Pabst, R. (1999). M cells at locations outside the gut. Seminars in Immunology, 11(3), 165–170.

Hamada, H., Hiroi, T., Nishiyama, Y., Takahashi, H., Masunaga, Y., Hachimura, S., Kaminogawa, S., Takahashi-Iwanaga, H., Iwanaga, T., Kiyono, H., Yamamoto, H., & Ishikawa, H. (2002). Identification of multiple isolated lymphoid follicles on the antimesenteric wall of the mouse small intestine. The Journal of Immunology, 168(1), 57–64.

Horalskyy, L. P., Khomych, V. T., & Kononskyy, O. I. (2019). Osnovy histolohichnoyi tekhniky i morfofunktsionalni metody doslidzhen u normi ta pry patolohiyi [Fundamentals of histological techniques and morphological methods of investigation in normal and pathological conditions]. Zhytomyr, Polissya Publ (in Ukrainian).

Jung, C., Hugot, J.-P., & Barreau, F. (2010). Peyer’s patches: The immune sensors of the intestine. International Journal of Inflammation, 823710, 1–12.

Kalinovskaya, I. G. (2005). Growth and development of Peyer’s plaque of the ileum of chickens in the postnatal period of ontogeny. News of Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian University, 2, 229–232 (in Ukrainian).

Kato, H., Fujihashi, K., Kato, R., Dohi, T., Fujihashi, K., Hagiwara, Y., Kataoka, K., Kobayashi, R., & McGhee, J. R. (2003). Lack of oral tolerance in aging is due to sequential loss of Peyer’s patch cell interactions. International Immunology, 15(2), 145–158.

Kajiwara, E., Shigeta, A., Horiuchi, H., Matsuda, H., & Furusawa, S. (2003). Development of Peyer’s patch and cecal tonsil in gut-associated lymphoid tissues in the chicken embryo. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 65(5), 607-614.

Khomych, В. Т., & Mazurkevych, Т. А. (2013). Rost i razvitie Peyerovoy blyashki dvenadtsatiperstnoy kishki u utok v vozraste ot odnih do 120 sutok [Grouth and development of the duodenum Peyer’s patch in one-dayold to 120-day-old ducks]. Aktualnye Voprosy Veterinarnoj Meditsiny Sibiri, 1, 146–149 (in Russian).

Kolomiets, I. A. (2010). Structural and functional features of lymphoid tissue of Peyer’s intestinal plaques in chickens. Problems of Zoo Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, 1(2), 35–38 (in Ukrainian).

Korableva, T. R. (2011). Limfoidnye obrazovaniya kishechnika mlekopitayushchih. Naukovі Pracі Pіvdennogo Fіlіalu Nacіonal’nogo Unіversitetu Bіoresursіv і Prirodokoristuvannya Ukrainy «Krimskij Agrotekhnologіchnij Unіversitet», 133 (in Ukrainian).

Kitagawa, H., Hiratsuka, Y., Imagawa, T., & Uehara, M. (1998). Distribution of lymphoid tissue in the caecal mucosa of chickens. Journal of Anatomy, 192(2), 293–298.

Kushch, M. M., Kushch, L. L., Fesenko, I. A., Miroshnikova, O. S., & Matsenko, O. V. (2019). Microscopic features of lamina muscularis mucosae of the goose gut. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(4), 382–387.

Lorenz, R. G., & Newberry, R. D. (2004). Isolated lymphoid follicles can function as sites for induction of mucosal immune responses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1029(1), 44–57.

Mazurkevych, T. A. (2014). Morfohenez pliamky Peiiera klubovoi kyshky kachok Blahovarskoho krosu vikom 25–120 dib [Morphogenesis of the Peyer’s patch of duck ileum at Blahovarsky cross aged from 25 to 120 days]. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 16, 2(59), 212–218 (in Ukrainian).

McGarry, R. C., & Bourns, T. K. R. (1980). Annular bands of lymphoid tissue in the intestine of the mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos. Journal of Morphology, 163(1), 1–8.

Pabst, O., Herbrand, H., Worbs, T., Friedrichsen, M., Yan, S., Hoffmann, M. W., Körner, H., Bernhardt, G., Pabst, R., & Förster, R. (2004). Cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles: dynamic lymphoid tissues dispensable for the generation of intraepithelial lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology, 35(1), 98–107.

Sapyn, M. R., & Etynhen, L. E. (1996). Ymmunnaia systema cheloveka [The human immune system]. Moscow, Medytsyna (in Russian).

Stoyanovsky, V. G. (2011). Probiotics and the immune system of the gastrointestinal tract of the bird. Modern Poultry Farming, 4, 21–25 (in Ukrainian).

Samoilіuk, V. V., Gavrilin, P. M., Bilyi, D. D., Koziy, M. S., & Maslikov, S. M. (2019). Topography and microstructural organization of lymphoid formations associated with pig intestinal mucosa. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 7(4), 189–197.

Takeuchi, T., Kitagawa, H., Imagawa, T., & Uehara, M. (1998). Proliferation and cellular kinetics of villous epithelial cells and M cells in the chicken caecum. Journal of Anatomy, 193(2), 233–239.

Zaher, М., El-Ghareeb, A.-W., Hamdi, H., & AbuAmod, F. (2012). Anatomical, histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits: I-Coturnix coturnix. Life Science Journal, 9(3), 253–275.

Abstract views: 144
PDF Downloads: 138
How to Cite
Logvinova, V. V., Oliyar, A. V., & Lieshchova, M. A. (2020). Formation of immune structures in small intestine of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(1), 50-55.

Most read articles by the same author(s)