Growth intensity and mineral metabolism rate of broiler chickens while using marine hydrobionts derived feed additives

Keywords: sea mussels; body weight; red algae; broilers; biochemical parameters.


There was determined an effect of feeding two feed additives made from primary processing wastes of marine hydrobionts on the mineral metabolism state of broiler chickens. Mineral feed additives were derived from mussels’ shells and seawater, protein-mineral feed additives were made from the shells of large mussels and bodies of small ones, Phyllophora nervosa algae, and seawater. Birds of the control group got only the basic diet. Chickens from experimental groups of 20 to 42 days old were fed with feed additives in addition to the basic diet. Chickens of groups I and II obtained mineral feed additive, groups III and IV – protein-mineral feed additive. Compared to the control group, chickens of the groups I and III received 93 % of the basic diet and 7 % of the mineral feed additive and protein-mineral feed additive, respectively; groups II and IV received in addition to the 100 % of the basic diet, 7 % of the mineral feed additive and protein-mineral feed additive. The growth rate was determined by the individual weighing of the bird at the age of 20 and 42 days old. Total calcium and inorganic phosphorus blood serum content was determined using a GBG ChemWell 2910 automatic biochemical analyzer and Global Scientific test systems. It was found that feeding broiler chickens with protein-mineral feed additive contributed to the bodyweight increase of broiler chickens. The use of mineral feed additives did not affect the chickens’ growth rate. When using feed additives, the calcium content did not significantly differ from the control group birds except for the group I, where it was 9.0 % higher (p ≤ 0.01). The content of phosphorus in the blood serum of broiler chickens from experimental groups was significantly higher: in chickens of the groups I, II, III and IV, respectively, by 34.4; 26.2; 38.5 and 23.0 % compared to the control. With the higher phosphorus content, the calcium to phosphorus ratio in the blood serum of the experimental chickens was significantly lower: group I – 23.0 %, group II – 13.0 %, group III – 24.0 %, and group IV – 20.0 %. Due to the increased phosphorus levels and almost unchanged calcium level, alkaline phosphatase activity was less. Compared to the control group, in broilers of groups I, II, III, and IV, the level of this enzyme was significantly lower by 53.5; 28.2; 44.6 and 57.8 %. The blood glucose level of all experimental groups’ chickens was slightly lower than normal, did not significantly differ from the control. The dependences of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity in the chickens’ blood serum on the method of feeding or the type of feed additive have not been established.


Download data is not yet available.


Aletor, V. A., & Onibi, O. E. (1990). Use of oyster shell as calcium supplement. Part 1. Effect on the utilization of gossypol-containing cotton seed cake by the chicken. Nahrung, 34(4), 311–318.

Bansemir, A., Just, N., Michalik, M., Lindequist, U., & Lalk, M. (2004). Extracts and sesquiterpene derivatives from the red alga Laurencia chondrioides with antibacterial activity against fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 1, 463–467.

Bueno, J. P. R., Nascimento, M. R. B. M., Martins, J. M. S., Marchini, C. F. P., Gotardo, L. R. M., Sousa, G. M. R., Mundim, A. V., Guimarães, E. C., & Rinaldi, F. P. (2017). Effect of age and cyclical heat stress on the serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens Influência da idade e do estresse cíclico de calor no perfil bioquímico sérico em frangos de corte. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 38, 3, 1383–1392.

Buğdaycı, K. E., Gümüş, H., Oğuz, M. N., Karakaş Oğuz, F., & Gülle, İ. (2019). Effects of Mediterranean Mussel Shell (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on performance and egg quality in laying quails. Acta Vet Eurasia. 2019, 45, 22–29.

Campo, V. L., Kawano, D. F., Da Silva, D. B., & Carvalho, I. (2009). Carrageenans: biological properties, chemical modifications and structural analysis – a review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 77, 167–180.

Creswell, D. C., & Kompiang, I. P. (1981). Studies on Snail Meal as a protein source for chickens: 1. Chemical composition, metabolizable energy, and feeding value for broilers. Poultry Science, 60, 1854–1860.

Dacke, G. C. (2000). The parathyroids, calcitonin, and vitamin D. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 473–488.

De Jesus Raposo, M., de Morais, A., & de Morais, R. (2015). Marine polysaccharides from Algae with potential biomedical applications. Marine Drugs, 13(5), 2967–3028.

Dibner, J. J., Richards, J. D., Kitchell, M. L., & Quiroz, M. A. (2007). Metabolic challenges and early bone development. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16(1), 126–137.

Gómez-Ordóñez, E., Jiménez-Escrig, A., & Rupérez, P. (2012). Effect of the red seaweed Mastocarpus stellatus intake on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in healthy Wistar rats. Food Chemistry, 135(2), 806–811.

Hemme A., Spark M., Wolf P., Paschertz H., & Kamphues J. (2005). Effects of different phosphorus sources in the diet on bone composition and stability (breaking strength) in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 89(3–6), 129–133.

Hosseini-Vashan, S. J., Golian, A., & Yaghobfar, A. (2016). Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60(8), 1183–1192.

Hurwitz, S. (1989). Calcium homeostasis in birds. Vitamins & Hormones, 45, 173–221.

Igwe, A. O., Ihedioha, J. I. & Okoye, J. O. A. (2018) Changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels and their relationship to egg production in laying hens infected with velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46(1), 523–528.

Iji, P. A., Toghyani, M., Ahiwe, E. U., & Omede, A. A. (2017). Alternative sources of protein for poultry nutrition. Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science, 237–269.

Jiang, S., Cui, L., Shi, C., Ke, X., Luo, J., & Hou, J. (2013). Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens. The Veterinary Journal, 198(1), 252–258.

Johnson, A. L. (2015). Reproduction in the female. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 635–665.

Jönsson, L., & Elwinger, K. (2009). Mussel meal as a replacement for fish meal in feeds for organic poultry – a pilot short-term study. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science, 59(1), 22–27.

Jönsson, L., Wall, H., & Tauson, R. (2011). Production and egg quality in layers fed organic diets with mussel meal. Animal, 5(3), 387–393.

Julian, R. J. (2005). Production and growth related disorders and other metabolic diseases of poultry – A review. The Veterinary Journal, 169(3), 350–369.

Kogut, M. H., & Powell, K. C. (1993). Preliminary findings of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in chickens during coccidian infections. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 108(2), 113–119.

Krestel-Rickert, D. H., Baile, C. A., & Buonomo, F. C. (1986). Changes in insulin, glucose and GH concentrations in fed chickens. Physiology & Behavior, 37(2), 361–363.

Kulshreshtha, G., Rathgeber, B., Stratton, G., Thomas, N., Evans, F., Critchley, A., Hafting, J., & Prithiviraj, B. (2014). Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens. Poultry Science, 93, 2991–3001.

Lima, F., Mendonca Junior, C., Alvarez, J., Garzillo, J., Ghion, E., & Leal, P. (1997). Biological evaluations of commercial dicalcium phosphates as sources of available phosphorus for broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 76(12), 1707–1713.

Lins, K. O. A. L., Bezerra, D. P., Alves, A. P. N. N., Alencar, N. M. N., Lima, M. W., Torres, V. M., Farias, W. R. L., Pessoa, C., de Moraes, M. O., & Costa-Lotufo, L. (2009). Antitumor properties of a sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Champia feldmannii (Diaz-Pifferer). Journal of Applied Toxicology, 29, 20–26.

Liu, J., Hafting, J., Critchley, A. T., Banskota, A. H., & Prithiviraj, B. (2013). Components of the cultivated red seaweed Chondrus crispus enhance the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa through thepmk-1,daf-2/daf-16, andskn-1Pathways. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(23), 7343–7350.

McLaughlan, C., Rose, P., & Aldridge, D. C. (2014). Making the best of a pest: the potential for using invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) biomass as a supplement to commercial chicken feed. Environmental Management, 54, 1102–1109.

Miles, R. D., Costa, P. T., & Harms, R. H. (1983). The influence of dietary phosphorus level on laying hen performance, egg shell quality, and various blood parameters. Poultry Science, 62(6), 1033–1037.

Morris, J. P., Backeljau, T., & Chapelle, G. (2019). Shells from aquaculture: a valuable biomaterial, not a nuisance waste product. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11, 42–57.

Nogovitsyina, E. A. (2018). Vliyanie kormovoy dobavki vermikulit na makro- i mikromorfologicheskie pokazateli kishechnika i krov gusey. Agrarnaya nauka, 6, 38–40. (in Russian).

Oso A. O., Idowu A. A., & Niameh O. T. (2011). Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95(4), 461–467.

Pastore, S. M., Gomes, P. C., Rostagno, H. S., Albino, L. F. T., Calderano, A. A., Vellasco, C. R., da Silva, V. G., & de Almeida, R. L. (2012). Calcium levels and calcium: available phosphorus ratios in diets for white egg layers from 42 to 58 weeks of age. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 41, 2424–2432.

Preda, С., Budica, С., & Dojana, N. (2014). Effect of various levels of dietary calcium on blood calcium concentration and hormonal status in white Cornish and White leghorn hens. Bulletin UASVM Veterinary Medicine, 71(1), 182–186.

Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M., & Angel, R. (2013). Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in broilers: Effect of homeostatic mechanism on calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 22, 609–627.

Shafey, T.M. (1993). Calcium tolerance of growing chickens: effect of ratio of dietary calcium to available phosphorus World’s Poultry Science Journal, 49(1), 5–18.

Sohail S. S., & Roland D. A. Sr. (2002). Influence of dietary phosphorus on performance of Hy-line W36 hens. Poultry Sciences, 81(1), 75–83.

Świątkiewicz, S., & Arczewska-Wlosek, A. (2012). Bone quality characteristics and performance in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with organic acids. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 57(4), 193–205.

Talebi, A. (2006). Biochemical parameters in broiler chickens vaccinated against ND, IB and IBD. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5, 1151–1155.

Tang, S. G. H., Sieo, C. C., Ramasamy, K., Saad, W. Z., Wong, H. K., & Ho, Y. W. (2017). Performance, biochemical and hematological responses, and relative organ weights of laying hens fed diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic. BMC Veterinary Research, 13, 248.

Ventura, M. V. A., & da Silva, R. M. (2019). Bone problems caused by the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the feeding of broilers. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 16(4), 12223–12226.

Waldenstedt, L. (2006). Nutritional factors of importance for optimal leg health in broilers: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 126(3-4), 291–307.

Wideman, R. F. (1987). Renal regulation of avian calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The Journal of Nutrition, 117, 808–815.

Xing, R., Yang, H., Wang, X., Yu, H., Liu, S., & Li, P. (2020). Effects of calcium source and calcium level on growth performance, immune organ indexes, serum components, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 29(1), 106–120.

Abstract views: 186
PDF Downloads: 137
How to Cite
Dankevych, N. I. (2020). Growth intensity and mineral metabolism rate of broiler chickens while using marine hydrobionts derived feed additives. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(1), 56-61.