Особенности формирования и мониторинга микроклимата в неизолированных помещениях: нерешенные вопросы

  • R.V. Mylostyvyi Дніпровський державний аграрно-економічний університет, Дніпро https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4450-8813
  • M. P. Vysokos Дніпровський державний аграрно-економічний університет, Дніпро https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9686-8848
  • V. Timoshenko Республиканское унитарное предприятие «Научно-практический центр Национальной академии наук Беларуси по животноводству», Жодино, Беларусь https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5806-1242
  • A. Muzyka Республиканское унитарное предприятие «Научно-практический центр Национальной академии наук Беларуси по животноводству», Жодино, Беларусь https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2582-5888
  • V. Vtoryi Институт агроинженерных и экологических проблем сельскохозяйственного производства-филиал федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения «Федеральный научный агроинженерный центр ВИМ», Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0026-6979
  • S. Vtoryi Институт агроинженерных и экологических проблем сельскохозяйственного производства-филиал федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения «Федеральный научный агроинженерный центр ВИМ», Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7169-1625
  • O. Chernenko Дніпровський державний аграрно-економічний університет, Дніпро https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8829-3148
  • O. Izhboldina Дніпровський державний аграрно-економічний університет, Дніпро https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8816-2228
  • O. Khmeleva Дніпровський державний аграрно-економічний університет, Дніпро https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0266-3716
  • G. Hoffmann Институт сельскохозяйственной инженерии и биоэкономики им. Лейбница, Потсдам, Германия https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0421-6250
Ключові слова: натурально-вентилируемые помещения; конструктивные особенности; комфорт коров; технические решения; тепловой стресс; моделирование.

Анотація

Современные неизолированные помещения (НП) для безпривязного содержания молочных коров отличаются от традиционных (типовых) капитальных зданий. Формирование микроклимата в таких помещениях значительно зависит от состояния окружающей среды и их конструктивных особенностей. Целью работы было обобщение литературных источников и результатов собственных исследований по созданию комфортных условий для молочных коров в НП. Наши исследования свидетельствуют о неоднородности формирования микроклимата в разных частях НП, который в значительной степени был обусловлен состоянием внешней среды. Применение только естественной вентиляции через открытые боковые шторы и световые коньки, а также дополнительная механическая вентиляция (за счет горизонтальных осевых вентиляторов) не всегда могут обеспечить комфортные условия для животных, особенно, в жаркие периоды года. Литературный анализ показывает, что причиной этого могут быть как факторы, влияющие на формирование и перемещение воздушных масс в самом помещении (зависящие от количества животных, состояния подстилки, работы внутреннего оборудования, в т.ч. объемно-планировочных и конструктивных особенностей, вида и качества материалов ограждающих конструкций), так и погодных условий снаружи зданий (температуры, влажности, силы ветра, а также рельефа местности). Перспективными будут исследования, связанные с дистанционными методами контроля микроклимата (с применением соответствующих портативных устройств) и выявлением контрольных (критических) точек ухудшения состояния воздушной среды в НП, мониторинг которых позволит вовремя принять необходимые управленческие решения по обеспечению комфорта молочных коров в экстремальных погодных условиях. Особенно востребованы будут методы прогноза микроклимата на основе метеорологических данных в зоне расположения НП и разработка интеллектуальных систем вентиляции с использованием математического моделирования, учитывающие поведенческие и физиологические реакции животных на изменения окружающей среды.

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Посилання

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2020-06-06
Як цитувати
Mylostyvyi, R., Vysokos, M. P., Timoshenko, V., Muzyka, A., Vtoryi, V., Vtoryi, S., Chernenko, O., Izhboldina, O., Khmeleva, O., & Hoffmann, G. (2020). Особенности формирования и мониторинга микроклимата в неизолированных помещениях: нерешенные вопросы. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(2), 73-85. Retrieved із https://bulletin-biosafety.com/index.php/journal/article/view/264
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