Adaptation of Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle to industrial technology of milk production

Keywords: cows; breed; dairy productivity; fat and protein milk content; insemination index; adaptation index.


The article presents the productive and reproductive qualities analysis that characterize the adaptive ability to the conditions of a large industrial complex for the milk production and intensive technology of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows’ usage. To achieve this aim was made an analysis of the productive qualities’ implementation of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows on industrial complexes of milk production. Using the balanced group method, two groups of cows were formed in each by following structure: first-calf heifers – 44%, cows of the second and third lactations – 28% each. The first group was formed from Holstein cows (I, n = 125), and the second group was formed Brown Swiss cows (II, n = 125). It was found that under the industrial milk production, the cows’ lactation period in both Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds is elongated – by 1.23 and 1.16 times higher than normal, respectively. While lactation in Brown Swiss cows averages 355.1 days, it is still 5.29% shorter than in Holstein cattle (P < 0.001), in which it is approximately 373.9 days. It was proved that Holstein cows during their lactation period produced averaged 8839.1 kg of 4% milk, which was inferior to the physical mass by 3.69%. An average of 10 344.5 kg of 4% milk was obtained from Brown Swiss cows for complete lactation, which is 0.4% higher than the physical mass. Namely, if in the Holstein cows the total weight of 4% milk was less than the physical mass, then in Brown Swiss cows, on the contrary, it was higher. At the same time, the level of dairy productivity of Brown Swiss cattle is higher than that of Holstein cows by 14.55% (P < 0.001). It was revealed that the milk quality indicators depending on the animals’ breed. The mass fraction of fat in milk of Holstein cows was on average 3.80%, and in Brown Swiss – on average 4.0 3%, which is 0.23% more in absolute terms (P < 0.001). Animals of two breeds differ significantly in terms of protein content. In Holstein, the mass fraction of protein in milk averaged by 3.25%, while in Brown Swiss this indicator was higher in absolute terms by 0.48% (P < 0.001) and averaged by 3.75%. It is proved, that animals of two breeds had satisfactory reproductive function indicators. In cows of Brown Swiss breed the insemination index averaged by 3.54 units. In Holstein cows, this indicator was at the level of 5.9 units, which is higher than in Brown Swiss by 40.0% (P < 0.001). In Brown Swiss cows, calving-to-conception interval was 140.7 days. At the same time, this indicator in Holstein cows averaged by 202.9 days, which exceeded the Brown Swiss value by 30.66%(P < 0.001). It was found that in the Brown Swiss cows, the infertility period, although long, did not exceed an average of 98.7 days, whereas in Holstein it was at the level of 131.9 days, which is 25.17% more (P < 0.001). In Brown Swiss cattle, 0.35 of calves was not received per animal, and in Holstein cows, this indicator was 23.91% higher (P < 0.001) and averaged by 0.46 calves. It was determined, that the adaptation index for Holstein cows was at the level of 2.55 units. At the same time, in Brown Swiss cows this indicator was higher by 29.2% and averaged by 3.60 units. Thus, in animals of two breeds, there was only a slight imbalance between their body and the environment of exploitation.


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Pishchan, I. S. (2020). Adaptation of Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle to industrial technology of milk production. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(2), 111-118.