Особливості діагностики лімфоми собак (огляд)

Ключові слова: ветеринарна онкологія; патогістоморфологічні методи; патоцитологія; прогностичні фактори.

Анотація

Лімфоми собак входять до великої і складної сфери онкогематології. Основоположною у систематизації лімфом собак визнана оновлена система класифікації Всесвітньої організації охорони здоров’я (ВООЗ), в основу якої покладені клінічні, топографічні, цитоморфологічні, імунофенотипові, генетичні і молекулярні характеристики неопластичних клітин. Різноманіття форм, підтипів лімфом собак, системності захворювання та збільшення випадків їх виявлення зумовлює важливість та актуальність у ветеринарній онкології всебічного вивчення цієї хвороби. Головний вектор у контролі захворювання і належного ведення хворого – це своєчасна постановка точного діагнозу. Схема діагностики лімфоми включає: урахування історії хвороби та фізикальне обстеження, гематологію і біохімічне дослідження крові і сечі, діагностичну візуалізацію грудної і черевної порожнин, патоморфологічні дослідження та імунофенотипування клітин. Втім, базовими для остаточного діагнозу залишаються цитологічні і гістологічні методи з фенотипізацією клітин. Кластери диференціювання В- і Т-клітин лімфом собак дещо відрізняються від застосованих для імунофенотипування лімфом людини. Високозлоякісні лімфоми собак із зрілих лімфоцитів реєструються у 86% випадків, при цьому мультицентрична B-великоклітинна лімфома визнана найбільш поширеною у світі. Застосування закордонними ветеринарними онкологами сучасних високотехнологічних методів діагностики (ультрасонографічних, томографічних, цитологічних, молекулярно-генетичних) не тільки сприяє швидкому і точному діагнозу, а й дозволяє науковцям робити важливі відкриття. Врахування паранеопластичних синдромів може сприяти більш ранньому виявленню лімфом у собак. Оцінено значимість прогностичних факторів і розуміння патогенезу лімфоми для прийняття ветеринарним лікарем правильних клінічних рішень, складання довгострокового прогнозу і підбору відповідної терапії. Складність постановки точного діагнозу лімфоми пов’язана з багатьма діагностичними процедурами і різними факторами впливу на них, що в підсумку потребує формування чіткого алгоритму діагностики.

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Посилання

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