Anatomical and histological characteristics of the dromedary eye (Camelus dromedarius)

Keywords: cornea; ciliary body; lens; eyeball; iris; optic nerve; retina.


The anatomy and features of the histological structure of the components of the eye of a one-humped camel were investigated. Ultrasound examinations of the eye, determination of the iridocorneal angle with a gynoscope were carried out on live animals in the clinic after the introduction of eye drops (xylocaine 2%, atropine sulfate 3%). The condition of the eye membranes was determined by histological methods. The studies were carried out on twenty eyeballs from ten clinically healthy adult camels, selected during slaughter in a meat processing enterprise. The anatomical and topographic features of the organ, its membranes and structures, absolute and relative mass, and linear measurements were determined. Thin histological sections of the eye wall were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, impregnated with silver nitrate, followed by examination under a microscope. In a one-humped camel, the eyelashes of both eyelids are very thick and long. The internal architectonics of the eyeball of a one-humped camel is similar to that of other animal species. The lens was found to be a transparent biconvex structure located inside the eyeball just behind the iris. The cornea of the eye occupies almost the entire visible part of the eye. The ciliary body is located behind the iris near the lens. The main functions of the ciliary body are the formation of intraocular fluid (aqueous humor), which fills the front of the eye. The ciliary body contains muscles that enable the eye to focus on objects located at different distances. A feature of the camel’s eye is the very open iridocorneal angle. The retina is built up by nerve tissue that lines the back of the eye. The retina perceives light, generates impulses that pass through the optic nerve and are sent to the brain. The histological structure of the membranes of the eye was studied after applying routine methods. It has been established that the eyes are built by various types of tissues, in particular, epithelial (epithelium of the conjunctiva), dense loose connective tissue (the corneal substance itself), loose connective tissue and pigment tissue (choroid) and nervous tissue with a layer of melanocytes and keratinocytes.


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Rahmoun, D. E., Lieshchova, M. A., Gherissi, D. E., & Hadjeris, T. (2020). Anatomical and histological characteristics of the dromedary eye (Camelus dromedarius). Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(2), 132-138.