Механізми розвитку антимікробної резистентності у бактерій

  • T. I. Stetsko Державний науково-дослідний контрольний інститут ветеринарних препаратів та кормових добавок, Львів, Україна https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9240-2191
  • V. P. Muzyka Державний науково-дослідний контрольний інститут ветеринарних препаратів та кормових добавок, Львів, Україна https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0767-7263
  • M. R. Kozak Державний науково-дослідний контрольний інститут ветеринарних препаратів та кормових добавок, Львів, Україна https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2271-8529
Ключові слова: антибіотики; мікроорганізми; гени стійкості; ветеринарна медицина

Анотація

Антимікробна резистентність становить значний ризик для здоров’я тварин внаслідок зниження ефективності профілактики та лікування багатьох інфекцій, спричинених бактеріями. Антибіотикорезистентність загрожує здоров’ю людини через передачу стійких штамів мікроорганізмів чи генів резистентності від тварин до людей через харчовий ланцюг. Небезпечні для життя людини інфекції, які були раніше керовані, можуть стати невиліковними через антимікробну резистентність. Стійкість до антимікробних засобів можна поділити на два основні типи: природну і набуту. Природна резистентність бактерій пов’язана з відсутністю або недоступністю цільових мішеней для дії певних антимікробних агентів. Набута резистентність специфічна, пов’язана з придбанням сторонніх генів резистентності або мутаційною модифікацією хромосомних генів-мішеней. Резистентність мікроорганізмів до антимікробних препаратів змінюється залежно від антимікробного агента, виду чи роду бактерії та механізму резистентності. Стійкість до однієї і тієї ж протимікробної речовини може бути опосередкована різними механізмами резистентності. У деяких випадках той же ген чи механізм резистентності зустрічається у різних бактерій, в інших випадках гени або механізми резистентності обмежені певними бактеріальними видами або родами. Стійкість бактерій до різних класів антибіотиків, що володіють спільними механізмами, часто спричинює мультилікарську резистентність. Дані, наведені в огляді, зосереджені винятково на генах та механізмах резистентності, виявлених у бактеріях тваринного походження, і на антимікробних препаратах, які застосовуються у ветеринарній медицині. Для кращого висвітлення теми інформація про механізми резистентності подана окремо для кожного класу антимікробних речовин.

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Посилання

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