Dynamics of lymph nodes weight characteristics in cattle during the prenatal period of their ontogenesis

Keywords: ontogenesis; bovine fetuses; hemopoietic and lymphopoietic organs; lymphoid tissue; the absolute and relative organ’s mass


In lymph nodes, as peripheral organs of the immune system, the patterns of their growth and development are unique in many ways, especially during the prenatal period of ontogenesis. The changes in the absolute and relative mass of lymph nodes in 66 bovine fetuses of different gestational ages (2–9 months) were studied. The weight of the fetuses and organs was determined with an accuracy of 0.001 g. According to the indicators of weight, body length, and the degree of development of the fetal skin derivatives, their age was established. It was found that in the first third of the fetal period of ontogenesis, the dynamics of the lymph nodes’ absolute mass was characterized by a moderate increase, which occurred simultaneously with an increase in the weight of the fetus itself. The relative weight at the beginning of the fetal period changed unevenly: it decreased in the superficial cervical and mandibular and increased in the popliteal and caudal mediastinal lymph nodes. In the second third of the fetal period, both the absolute and the relative weight of the examined organs increased dramatically (with the maximum at 7 months-old age). During the last third of the fetal period, a gradual increase in the absolute mass of all lymph nodes was found, and their relative mass, on the contrary, decreased moderately. In the second and last third of prenatal development, there was no direct relationship between the growth of the lymph nodes mass and the fetal total mass.


Download data is not yet available.


Aagaard, K., Ma, J., Antony, K. M., Ganu, R., Petrosino, J., & Versalovic, J. (2014). The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Science Translational Medicine, 6(237).

Arora, K. L. (2011). Allometric growth of prenatal organs as a function of age in the japanese quail embryo, Coturnix japonica. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(4), 300–308.

Balogh, P. (2010). Introduction: evolution of peripheral lymphoid organs. Developmental Biology of Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, 1–3.

Beyer, T., & Meyer-Hermann, M. (2007). Modeling emergent tissue organization involving high-speed migrating cells in a flow equilibrium. Physical Review, 76(2).

Benezech, C., White, A., Mader, E., Serre, K., Parnell, S., Pfeffer, Ware, C. F., Anderson, G., & Caamano, J. H. (2010). Ontogeny of stromal organizer cells during lymph node development. The Journal of Immunology, 184(8), 4521–4530.

Casteleyn, C. R., Breugelmans, S., Simoens, P., & Van den Broeck, W. (2008). Morphological and immunological characteristics of the bovine temporal lymph node and hemal node. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 126(3-4), 339–350.

Chaudhuri, A. (2016). Embryonic development of liver and its future implications. Human Fetal Growth and Development, 331–345.

Chernenko, О. М., Lieshchova, M. O., Orishchuk, O. S., Chernenko, О. I., Zaiarko, О. I., Tsap, S. V., Bordunova, О. G. & Dutka, V. R. (2020). Biological features of the formation of cattle in the prenatal period of ontogeny and subsequent dairy production. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 26(6).

Chuchkova, N. N., Smetanina, M. V., Kormilina, N. V. & Komissarov, V. B. (2016). Morfogenez limfaticheskih uzlov v uslovijah hronicheskogo sistemnogo vospalenija. [The morphogenesis of lymph nodes in of chronic systemic inflammation]. Morfologija, 149(3), 230–231 (in Russian).

Clatworthy, H. W., & Anderson, R. G. (1944). Development and growth of the human embryo and fetus. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 67(3).

Cupedo T., Coles M. C., Veiga-Fernandes H. (2011). Development and structure of lymph nodes in humans and mice. In: Balogh P. (eds) Developmental biology of peripheral lymphoid organs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Ferrell, C. L. (1991). Maternal and fetal influences on uterine and conceptus development in the cow: I. Growth of tissues of the gravid uterus. Journal of Animal Science, 69(5), 1945–1953.

Galeeva, E. N. (2012). Sovremennye predstavlenija o plodnoj anatomii organov limfoidnoj sistemy cheloveka (obzor literatury) [The modern introductions about fetal anatomy of the human’s lymphoid system’s organs (review of the literature)]. Vestnik Novyh Medicinskih Tehnologij, 19(2), 384–389 (in Russian).

Galeeva, E. N., & Ul’yanov, O.V. (2019). Topographic and anatomical characteristic of visceral lymphatic nodes of the abdomen in the intermediate fetal period of human ontogenesis. Journal of Anatomy and Histopathology, 8(2), 38–42.

Gavrylin, P., Rahmoun, D. E., Lieshchova, M. A., & Benchadi, H. (2013). Features topography and macrostructure of lymph nodes in Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 3(2), 106–110.

Gavrilin, P. N., Gavrilina, О. G., & Kravtsovа, M. V. (2017). The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in the newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus). Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 169–178.

Gavrilin, P. N., Lieshchova, M. A., Gavrilina, O. G., & Boldyreva, T. F. (2018). Prenatal morphogenesis of compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes of domestic cattle (Bos taurus). Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 9(1), 95–104.

Grigor’ev, V. S. & Moljanova, G. V. (2009). Organogenez central’’nyh i perifericheskih organov immunnoj sistemy u sel’’skohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh [Organogenesis of central and peripheral bodies of the immune system in agricultural animals]. Monografija. Ric Sgsha, Samara (in Russian).

Heggestad, C. B., & Wells, L. J. (1965). Experiments on the contribution of somatotrophin to prenatal growth in the rat. Cells Tissues Organs, 60(3), 348–361.

Hlystova, Z. S. (1987). Stanovlenie sistemy immunogeneza ploda cheloveka [Formation of the system of human fetal immunogenesis]. Medicine, Moscow (in Russian).

Islam, M. N., Khan, M. Z. I., Jahan, M. R. & Shinoda, K. (2018). Developmental trajectory of the prenatal lymphoid organs in native chickens: a macro anatomical study. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 3(4), 432.

Jackson, C. M. (1909). On the prenatal growth of the human body and the relative growth of the various organs and parts. American Journal of Anatomy, 9(1), 119–165.

Jeklova, E., Leva, L., & Faldyna, M. (2007). Lymphoid organ development in rabbits: Major lymphocyte subsets. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 31(6), 632–644.

Karpocheva, I. G., & Galeeva, Е. N. (2017). Anatomo-funkcionalnajа harakteristika limfoidnoj sistemy i ee stanovlenie v prenatal’nom ontogeneze. Sovremennye Problemy Nauki i Obrazovanija, 2.

Kusch O. G., & Vasilchuk N. G. (2014). Influence of prenatal antigenic stimulation on the structure of mediastinal lymph node of the fetus. The World of Medicine and Biology, 2(44), 134–139.

Lieshchova, M. O. (2007). Features of the morphogenesis of bovine fetal lymphoid organs. Kyiv, Natsionalnyi Ahrarnyi Universytet.

Luecke, R. H., Wosilait, W. D., & Young, J. F. (1995). Mathematical representation of organ growth in the human embryo/fetus. International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing, 39(3), 337–347.

Martinez-H, D. I., Barradas-P, F. T., Peniche-Ca, A. E. de J., Serna-Mont, R. D., Morales-Al, F., Flores-Cas, R., … Robledo-Sa, M. L. (2012). Morpho metrical evaluation of preescapular lymph nodes from cattle vaccinated with brucella abortus strains S19 or RB51. JournalofAnimalandVeterinaryAdvances, 11(4), 521–525.

Mebius, R. E. (2003). Erratum: Organogenesis of lymphoid tissues. Nature Reviews Immunology, 3(4), 292–303.

Nishikawa, S.-I., Honda, K., Vieira, P., & Yoshida, H. (2003). Organogenesis of peripheral lymphoid organs. Immunological Reviews, 195(1), 72–80.

Ohtani, O. & Ohtani, Y. (2008). Structure and function of rat lymph nodes. Archives of Histology and Cytology, 71(2), 69–76.

Parker, G. A., & Makori, N. (2018). Development of immune system organs. Comprehensive Toxicology, 49–73.

Petrenko, V. M. (2016). O morfogeneze perifericheskih limfoidnyh struktur: novoobrazovanie limfaticheskih uzlov posle rozhdenija. Mezhdunarodnyj Zhurnal Prikladnyh i Fundamental’nyh Issledovanij, 10(3), 397–401.

Policard, A. (1965). Fiziologija i patologija limfoidnoj sistemy [Physiology and pathology of the lymphoid system]. Moscow. Medicina (in Russian).

Randall, T. D., Carragher, D. M., & Rangel-Moreno, J. (2008). Development of secondary lymphoid organs. annual review of immunology, 26(1), 627–650.

Sapin, M. R. (2006). Osobennosti imunnogo otveta pri razlichnych vnechnich vozdeistviyah [Features of the immune response under various external influences]. Morphology, 129 (4), 109–110 (in Russian).

Sapin, M. R., Jurina, N. A. & Etingen, L. (1978). Limfaticheskij uzel [Lymph node]. Medicine, Moscow (in Russian).

Studencov, A. P., Shipilov, V. S., Nikitin, V. Ja., Miroljubov, M. G., Subbotina, L. G., Preobrazhenskij, O. N. & Hromcov V. V. (1999). Veterinarnoe akusherstvo, ginekologija i biotehnika razmnozhenija [Veterinary obstetrics, gynecology and biotechnics of reproduction]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian)

Shmal’gauzen I. I. (1984). Rost i differencirovka. Kyiv. Naukova dumka (in Russian).

Snow, M. H. L. (1986). Control of embryonic growth rate and fetal size in mammals. Human Growth, 67–82.

Zelenevsky, N. V. (2013). Mezhdunarodnaja veterinarnaja anatomicheskaja no-menklatura na latinskom i russkom jazykah. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria [International veterinary anatomical nomenclature in Latin and Russian. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria]. Mir, Sankt-Peterburg (in Russian).

Abstract views: 216
PDF Downloads: 143
How to Cite
Lieshchova, M. A., Oliyar, A. V., Bilyi, D. D., Skliarov, P. M., Masiuk, D. M., Logvinova, V. V., & Bohomaz, A. A. (2020). Dynamics of lymph nodes weight characteristics in cattle during the prenatal period of their ontogenesis. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(4), 283-288. https://doi.org/10.32819/2020.84042

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>