Factors affecting piglets stillbirth in Large White sows

Keywords: stillborn piglets; frequency of stillborn piglets; litter size; farrowing number; binary logistic regression model

Abstract

This study considers signs of a sow that affect the stillborn piglets number in the nest and the likelihood of stillbirth. The animals that were used for this study were kept on the pig farm of «Tavriys’ki svyni» LLC, located in the Skadovsky district (Kherson region, Ukraine). The experimental materials used for this study consisted of 100 animals from productive parent sows of the Large White pig. The reproductive indicators of each animal included in this study were evaluated. The total number of piglets at birth (both live and dead), i.e. total litter size and and sow farrowing number were monitored for the first eight farrows during the period of eleven years (2007–2017). Stillborn piglets were observed in 63.3 ± 1.7% of litter, and their average proportion in the nest was 11.5 ± 0.4%. The proportion of piglets born dead of the total piglets at birth obtained in this study is within the range of 5 to 15%, which has been previously noted for commercial pig farms in other countries. With an increase in the age of the sow (the number of farrowing’s), there was a gradual decrease in the proportion of the litter in which no stillborn piglet was observed (χ2 = 51.35; P < 0.001), and, conversely, the proportion of nests in which 2–4 stillborn piglets were recorded gradually increased (χ2 = 46.32; P < 0.001). The number of stillborn piglets and the frequency of stillborn piglets in the litter tended to increase in sows that had a large litter size at birth (in both cases: P < 0.001).The binary logistic regression analyses indicated that the probability of a piglet being stillborn was significantly associated with the farrowing number of the sow and the total number of piglets in the litter (χ2 = 155.00; P < 0.001). This model predicted well the presence of at least one stillborn piglet per litter (in 86.6% of cases) and more or less adequately predicted its absence (in 42.9%). Our results indicate that there is a significant interaction between the number of farrowing and the total size of the litter when determining the estimate of the proportion of stillborn piglets in the litter. The same predicted estimates can be obtained for a small litter in an older sow, or, conversely, for a large litter in a first-farrowing sow.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Borges, V. F., Bernardi, M. L., Bortolozzo, F. P., & Wentz, I. (2005). Risk factors for stillbirth and foetal mummification in four Brazilian swine herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 70(3-4), 165–176.

Canario, L., Cantoni, E., Le Bihan, E., Caritez, J. C., Billon, Y., Bidanel, J. P., & Foulley, J. L. (2006). Between-breed variability of stillbirth and its relationship with sow and piglet characteristics. Journal of Animal Science, 84(12), 3185–3196.

Fraser, D., Phillips, P. A., & Thompson, B. K. (1997). Farrowing behaviour and stillbirth in two environments: An evaluation of the restraint-stillbirth hypothesis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 55(1-2), 51–66.

Grandinson, K., Lund, M. S., Rydhmer, L., & Strandberg, E. (2002). Genetic parameters for the piglet mortality traits crushing, stillbirth and total mortality, and their relation to birth weight. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science, 52(4), 167–173.

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4, 1-9.

Kapell, D. N. R. G., Ashworth, C. J., Knap, P. W., & Roehe, R. (2011). Genetic parameters for piglet survival, litter size and birth weight or its variation within litter in sire and dam lines using Bayesian analysis. Livestock Science, 135(2-3), 215–224.

Kirkden, R. D., Broom, D. M., & Andersen, I. L. (2013). Invited review: piglet mortality: management solutions. Journal of Animal Science, 91(7), 3361–3389.

Koketsu, Y., Sasaki, Y., Ichikawa, H., & Kaneko, M. (2010). Benchmarking in animal agriculture: concepts and applications. Journal of Veterinary Epidemiology, 14(2), 105-117.

Kramarenko, S. S., Lugovy, S. I., Lykhach, A. V. & Kramarenko, O. S. (2019). Analiz biometrychnykh danykh u rozvedenni ta selektsiyi tvaryn [Analysis of biometric data in animal breeding and selection]. MNAU, Mykolayiv, MNAU (in Ukrainian).

Kramarenko, A. S., Kramarenko, S. S., & Lugovoy, S. I. (2021). Analysis of the stillborn piglet’s distribution in the Large White sows. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 23(94), 25–30.

Le Cozler, Y., Guyomarc’h, C., Pichodo, X., Quinio, P.-Y., & Pellois, H. (2002). Factors associated with stillborn and mummified piglets in high-prolific sows. Animal Research, 51(3), 261–268.

Leenhouwers, J. I., van der Lende, T., & Knol, E. F. (1999). Analysis of stillbirth in different lines of pig. Livestock Production Science, 57(3), 243–253.

Leenhouwers, J. I., de Almeida Júnior, C. A., Knol, E. F., & van der Lende, T. (2001). Progress of farrowing and early postnatal pig behavior in relation to genetic merit for pig survival. Journal of Animal Science, 79(6), 1416.

Lucia Jr., T., Corrêa, M. N., Deschamps, J. C., Bianchi, I., Donin, M. A., Machado, A. C., Meincke, W., & Matheus, J. E. (2002). Risk factors for stillbirths in two swine farms in the south of Brazil. Preventive veterinary medicine, 53(4), 285–292.

Muñoz, M., Rodríguez, M. C., García-Cortes, L. A., Gonzalez, A., García-Casco, J. M., & Silió, L. (2017). Direct and maternal additive effects are not the main determinants of Iberian piglet perinatal mortality. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 134(6), 512-519.

Nam, N. H., & Sukon, P. (2020). Risk factors associated with stillbirth in swine farms in Vietnam. World, 10(1), 74-79.

Rangstrup-Christensen, L., Krogh, M. A., Pedersen, L. J., & Sørensen, J. T. (2017). Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds. Animal, 11(6), 1078–1083.

Segura Correa, J. C., Alzina-López, A., & Rivera, J. L. S. (2007). Evaluación de tres modelos y factores de riesgo asociados a la mortalidad de lechones al nacimiento en el trópico de México. Técnica pecuaria en México, 45(2), 227-236.

Shebanina, O. V., Kramarenko, S. S., & Ganganov, V. M. (2008). Metody neparametrychnoyi statystyky [Nonparametric Statistical Methods]. Mykolayiv, MNAU (in Ukrainian).

Schild, S. L. A., Baxter, E. M., & Pedersen, L. J. (2020). A review of neonatal mortality in outdoor organic production and possibilities to increase piglet survival. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 231, 105088.

Vanderhaeghe, C., Dewulf, J., de Kruif, A., & Maes, D. (2013). Non-infectious factors associated with stillbirth in pigs: A review. Animal Reproduction Science, 139(1-4), 76–88.

Vanroose, G., de Kruif, A., & Van Soom, A. (2000). Embryonic mortality and embryo–pathogen interactions. Animal Reproduction Science, 60-61, 131–143.

Weber, R., Keil, N. M., Fehr, M., & Horat, R. (2009). Factors affecting piglet mortality in loose farrowing systems on commercial farms. Livestock Science, 124(1-3), 216–222.

Zaleski, H. M., & Hacker, R. R. (1993). Effect of oxygen and neostigmine on stillbirth and pig viability. Journal of Animal Science, 71(2), 298–305.


Abstract views: 125
PDF Downloads: 50
Published
2021-03-30
How to Cite
Kramarenko, A. S., & Kramarenko, S. (2021). Factors affecting piglets stillbirth in Large White sows. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 9(1), 40-46. https://doi.org/10.32819/2021.91007