Changes in the goat’s milk composition due to heat stress at the farm of the Ukrainian steppe zone

Keywords: goat milk; heat stress


The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between milk indicators of dairy goats that are staying under heat stress with the climatic conditions of the Ukrainian steppe zone. The main research areas of animals’ reaction to temperature stress were monitoring their physiological state, changes in behavior and metabolism through the neuroendocrine mechanisms of their regulation, assessing the immune system functional state, the antioxidant defense system, and determining the activity of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. It is important to control the respiratory rate of animals, which becomes especially important when the air humidity is high and the reversal of the fat/protein ratio in milk is detected. It occurs under stressful conditions and significantly affects the technological properties of milk, especially in animals with high milk productivity. It is useful to provide goats after kidding with the opportunity to stay for a long time with an adequate photoperiod, this will affect the synthesis of prolactin and the level of milk yield at the peak of lactation. When feeding highly productive animals, it becomes important to regulate both the appetite of animals and the composition of the diet. This is important to prevent digestive disorders because the state of the ruminant stomach microbiota of the feed affects the synthesis of the constituent components of milk. When breeding, attention should be paid to multiple pregnancies, because the long-term effect of gonadotropins and other biologically active substances from the placenta affects the ability of females to produce greater milk secretion in the next lactation. According to the obtained results, staying in the transition zone according to the THI (more than 65) affected some of the chemical parameters of goat’s milk. In particular, there was a decrease in fat content, and therefore also the dry matter content and the fat/protein ratio, as well as urea, as one of the indicators of the rumen microbiota state. A significant increase in the number of somatic cells was observed almost three times, which confirms the presence of stress response from the mammary gland. For an objective assessment of the animals’ welfare state in terms of climatic conditions, it is advisable to use the definitions of the temperature-humidity index, and to confirm the stress response in dairy goats from any factor of keeping and feeding – laboratory determination of stress biomarkers in the composition of blood, milk, and urine.


Download data is not yet available.


Afsal, A., Sejian, V., Bagath, M., Krishnan, G., Devaraj, C. & Bhatta, R. (2018). Heat stress and livestock adaptation: neuro-endocrine regulation. International Journal of Veterinary and Animal Medicine, 1(2), 108‒115.

Antonenko, P. P., Chumak, S. V., & Chumak, V. O. (2019). Physical and chemical composition of goat milk during smallholder production in the conditions of the natural and agricultural zone of the Steppe of Ukraine. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 7(4), 198–204.

Battini, M., Barbieri, S., Fioni, L., & Mattiello, S. (2015). Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60(2), 289–296.

Bhatta, M., Das, D. & Ghosh, P.R. (2015). Influence of seasonal variation in the general composition of black bengal goat (Capra Aegagrus Hircus) milk. Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research. 2 (4), 148‒152.

Contreras-Jodar, A., Salama, A. A. K., Hamzaoui, S., Vailati-Riboni, M., Caja, G. & Loor, J. J. (2018). Effects of chronic heat stress on lactational performance and the transcriptomic profile of blood cells in lactating dairy goats. Journal of Dairy Research, 85 (4), 423–430.

Contreras-Jodar, A., Nayan, N.H., Hamzaoui, S., Caja, G. & Salama, A.A.K. (2019) Heat stress modifies the lactational performances and the urinary metabolomic profile related to gastrointestinal microbiota of dairy goats. PLoS ONE, 14 (2), e0202457.

De Vasconcelos, A.M., Osterno, J.J., Rogério, M.C.P., Façanha, D.A.E., Landim, A.V., Pinheiro, A.A., Silveira, R.M.F. & Ferreira, J.B. (2019). Adaptive profile of Saanen goats in tropical conditions. Biological Rhythm Research, 52 (5), 748–758.

Delgado Bermejo, J.V., Limón Pérez, F.A., Navas González, F.J., León Jurado, J.M., Fernández Álvarez, J., & Telo da Gama, L. (2020). Conditioning factors of linearized wood’s function lactation curve shape parameters, milk yield, fat and protein content in murciano-granadina primiparous does. Animals, 10 (11), 2115.

Fonseca, W. J. L., Azevêdo, D. M. M. R., Campelo, J. E. G., Fonseca, W. L., Luz, C. S. M., Oliveira, M. R. A., Evangelista, A. F., Borges, L. S. & Sousa Júnior, S. C. (2016). Effect of heat stress on milk production of goats from Alpine and Saanen breeds in Brazil. Archivos de Zootecnia, 65 (252), 615–621.

Habeeb, A.A., Gad, A.E. & Atta, M.A. (2018). Temperature-Humidity Indices as Indicators to Heat Stress of Climatic Conditions with Relation to Production and Reproduction of Farm Animals. The International Journal of Biotechnology and Recent Advances, 1(1), 35–50.

Hamzaoui, S., Salama, A.A.K., Albanell, E., Such, X. & Caja, G. (2013). Physiological responses and lactational performances of late lactating dairy goats under heat stress conditions. Journal of Dairy Science, 96 (10), 6355–6365.

Kljajevic, N.V., Tomasevic, I.B., Miloradovic, Z.N., Nedeljkovic, A., Miocinovic, J.B. & Jovanovic, S.T. (2018). Seasonal variations of Saanen goat milk composition and the impact of climatic conditions.The Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55 (1), 299–303.

Kouri, F., Charallah, S., Kouri, A., Amirat, Z. & Khammar, F. (2018). Milk production and its relationship with milk composition, body and udder morphological traits in Bedouin goat reared under arid conditions. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 41 (1), e42552.

Ladyka, L. M., Shapovalov, S. O., Fotina, T. I., Kyselʹov, O. V., Kalashnikov, V. O., & Ryzhkova, T. M. (2014). Fizyko-khimichnyy sklad kozyachoho moloka za umov provedennya monitorynhovykh doslidzhenʹ yoho yakosti na skhodi Ukrayiny [Physico-chemical composition of goat’s milk under the conditions of monitoring studies of its quality in eastern Ukraine]. Naukovo-Tekhnichnyy Byuletenʹ Instytutu Biolohiyi Tvaryn i Derzhavnoho Naukovo-doslidnoho Kontrolʹnoho Instytutu Vetpreparativ ta Kormovykh Dobavok. 15 (1), 27–33 (in Ukrainian).

Mabjeesh, S.J., Sabastian, C., Gal-Garber, O. & Shamay, A. (2013). Effect of photoperiod and heat stress in the third trimester of gestation on milk production and circulating hormones in dairy goats. Journal Dairy Science. 96 (1), 189–197.

Machado, N.A.F., Filho, J.A.D.B., de Oliveira, K.P.L., de Oliveira, M., Parente, M., de Siqueira, J.C., Pereira, A.M., Santos, A.R.D., Sousa, J.M.S., Rocha, K.S., de Souza Viveiros, K.K. & dos Santos Costa, K. (2019). Biological rhythm of goats and sheep in response to heat stress, Biological Rhythm Research, 51(7), 1044–1052.

Maslyuk, A.M. (2019). Vikova dynamika ta povtoryuvanistʹ rivnya produktyvnosti kiz zaanensʹkoyi porody. [The age-related dynamics and repeatability of the productivity level the saanen goats breed]. Vivcharstvo ta kozivnytstvo, 4, 194–207 (in Ukrainian).

Marković, B., Marković, M., Radonjić, D., Mirecki, S. & Veljić, M. (2020). Factors affecting milk yield and composition of indigenous balkan goat breed reared in semi extensive conditions. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 54 (3), 379–383.

Mayer, E. A., Knight, R., Mazmanian, S.K., Cryan, J. F. & Tillisch, K. (2014). Gut microbes and the brain: paradigm shift in neuroscience. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (46), 15490–15496.

Mohsin, A.Z., Sukor, R., Selamat, J., Hussin, A.S.M & Ismail, I.H. (2019). Chemical and mineral composition of raw goat milk as affected by breed varieties available in Malaysia. International Journal of Food Properties, 22 (1), 815–824.

Mylostyvyi, R., & Chernenko, O. (2019). Correlations between environmental factors and milk production of Holstein Cows. Data, 4 (3), 103.

Pizarro, M. G., Landi, V., Navas, F. J., León, J. M., Martínez, A., Fernández, J. & Delgado, J. V. (2020). Non-parametric analysis of the effects of nongenetic factors on milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, dry matter content and somatic cell count in Murciano-Granadina goats. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 19 (1), 960–973.

Ramos-Pereira, J., Rios, E.A., Rodríguez-Calleja, J.M., Santos, J.A. & López-Díaz, T.M. (2019). Studies of the microbiological and physico-chemical composition of goat ́s milk from North-Western Spain. Milk Science International, 72 (7), 39–44.

Salama, A. A. K., Caja, G., Hamzaoui, S., Badaoui, B., Castro-Costa, A., Facanha, D. A. E., Guilhermino, M. M. & Bozzi, R. (2014). Different levels of response to heat stress in dairy goats. Small Rumin Research. 121 (1), 73–79.

Sandrucci, A., Bava, L., Tamburini, A., Gislon, G. & Zucali, M. (2019) Management practices and milk quality in dairy goat farms in Northern Italy, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 18 (1), 1–12.
Sarangi, S. (2018). Adaptability of goats to heat stress: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 7 (4), 1114–1126.

Sejian, V., Bhatta, R., Gaughan, J.B., Dunshea, F.R. & Lacetera, N. (2018). Review: Adaptation of animals to heat stress. Animal, 12 (2), 431–444.

Sejian, V., Bagath, M., Krishnan, G., Rashamola, V. P., Pragna, P., Devaraj, C. & Bhatta, R. (2019). Genes for resilience to heat stress in small ruminants: A review. Small Ruminant Research, 173, 42–53.

Sejian, V., Silpa, M.V., Reshma Nair, M.R., Devaraj, C., Krishnan, G., Bagath, M., Chauhan, S.S., Suganthi, R.U., Fonseca, V.F.C., König, S., Gaughan, J.B., Dunshea, F.R. & Bhatta, R. (2021). Heat stress and goat welfare: adaptation and production considerations. Animals, 11 (4), 1021.

Silanikove, N., & Koluman (Darcan), N. (2015). Impact of climate change on the dairy industry in temperate zones: Predications on the overall negative impact and on the positive role of dairy goats in adaptation to earth warming. Small Ruminant Research, 123(1), 27–34.

Yilmaz, M., Altin, T., Kiral, F., Taskin, T., Ekren Asici, G.S. & Kizilkaya, K. (2018). Effects of the season on physiological and endocrine traits and on HSP70 in Saanen goats under Mediterranean climate conditions. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 74 (1), 39–47.

Zamuner, F., DiGiacomo, K., Cameron, A. W. N. & Leury, B. J. (2019). Effects of month of kidding, parity number, and litter size on milk yield of commercial dairy goats in Australia. Journal of Dairy Science, 103, (1), 954–964.

Zazharska, N., Fotina, T., Yatsenko, I., Tarasenko, L., Biben, I., Zazharskyi, V., Brygadyrenko, V. & Sklyarov, P. (2021). Comparative analysis of the criteria for goat milk assessment in Ukraine and France. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (2), 144–148.

Abstract views: 125
PDF Downloads: 101
How to Cite
Chumak, S. V., Chumak, V. O., & Horchanok, A. V. (2021). Changes in the goat’s milk composition due to heat stress at the farm of the Ukrainian steppe zone. Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine, 9(2), 74-81.